Lotus Symphony 3:Spreadsheets

First Edition

Published October 2010

About this edition

In keeping with IBM's commitment to accessibility, this edition of the product documentation is accessible.

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IBM Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

Lotus Symphony includes a spreadsheet application that you can use to calculate, analyze, and manage your data. You can use statistical and banking functions that create formulas to perform complex calculations on your data.

Additional features in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets make it easy to work with and present data.

  1. Arranging data With a few mouse-clicks, you can reorganize your spreadsheet to show or hide certain data ranges, to format ranges according to special conditions, or to quickly calculate subtotals and totals.
  2. Scenario calculations Lets you immediately view the results of changes made to one factor of a calculation that is composed of several factors. For instance, you can see how changing the time period in a loan calculation affects the interest rate or repayment amount. In addition, you can manage larger tables by using different pre-defined scenarios.
  3. Dynamic charts Present spreadsheet data in dynamic charts that update automatically when the data changes.
  4. Opening and saving Microsoft files Use filters to convert Microsoft Excel files, or to open and save those files in a variety of other formats.

Using Shortcut Keys ( Lotus Symphony Documents Accessibility)

Note Icon Some of the shortcut keys may be assigned to your desktop system. Keys that are assigned to the desktop system are not available to Lotus® Symphony™. Try to assign different keys in your desktop system.

Press the keys Alt+<underlined character> to open a menu. In an open menu, press the underlined character to run a command. For example, press Alt+I to open the Insert menu, and then T to insert a table.

To open a context menu, press Shift+F10. To close a context menu, press Escape.

Keyboard Navigation

You can use shortcut keys to perform common tasks in spreadsheets. You can also use the general shortcut keys for Lotus Symphony. However, some keyboard shortcut conflicts with a default Exposé key assignment in Mac OS X version 10.6.3 or later. To use the shortcut in Symphony, you must first turn off the Exposé keyboard shortcut for this key.

Navigation keys for Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

Action Shortcut
Moves the cursor to the first cell in the sheet (A1). Ctrl+Home
Moves the cursor to the last cell on the sheet that contains data. Ctrl+End
Moves the cursor to the first cell of the current row. Home
Moves the cursor to the last cell of the current row that contains data. End
Moves the cursor to the left edge of the current data range. If the column to the left of the cell that contains the cursor is empty, the cursor moves to the next column to the left that contains data. Ctrl+Left Arrow
Moves the cursor to the right edge of the current data range. If the column to the right of the cell that contains the cursor is empty, the cursor moves to the next column to the right that contains data. Ctrl+Right Arrow
Moves the cursor to the top edge of the current data range. If the row above the cell that contains the cursor is empty, the cursor moves up to the next row that contains data. Ctrl+Up Arrow
Moves the cursor to the bottom edge of the current data range. If the row below the cell that contains the cursor is empty, the cursor moves down to the next row that contains data. Ctrl+Down Arrow
Selects all cells containing data from the current cell to the end of the continuous range of data cells, in the direction of the arrow pressed. If used to select rows and columns together, a rectangular cell range is selected.hh Ctrl+Shift+Up/Down/Left/Right Arrow
Moves one sheet to the left. In Page Preview, moves to the previous print page. Ctrl+Page Up
Moves one sheet to the right. In Page Preview, moves to the next print page. Ctrl+Page Down
Moves one page to the left. Alt+Page Up
Moves one page to the right. Alt+Page Down
Selects the data range that contains the cursor. A range is a contiguous cell range that contains data and is bounded by empty rows and columns. Ctrl+* - where * is on the numeric keypad only. Many laptop computers may not include a numeric keypad
Selects the matrix formula range that contains the cursor. Ctrl+/ - where / is on the numeric keypad only. Many laptop computers may not include a numeric keypad
Moves the cursor down one cell in a selected range. Enter (within a selected range)
Type a new text line (in cell editing mode). Alt+Enter

Function keys for Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

Action Shortcut
Opens Help. F1
Displays the comment that is attached to the current cell. Ctrl+F1
Turns Formula bar on or off. If drawing object is selected, enters input mode. F2
Opens the Functions input dialog. Ctrl+F2
Moves the cursor to the Input line where you can enter a formula for the current cell. Ctrl+Shift+F2
Opens the Define Name window. Ctrl+F3
Rearranges relative or absolute references in the input field. Shift+F4
Closes application. Ctrl+F4
Displays or hides the navigator. F5
Opens the Navigator. Ctrl+Shift+F5
Traces dependents. Shift+F5
Traces precedents. Shift+F7
Moves the focus among different sub-windows. Shift+F6
Opens the Hyperlink dialog. Ctrl+K
Applies default formatting to the selected content. Ctrl+T
Selects entire column. Ctrl+Shift+C
Adds to the docking window. Ctrl+Shift+E
Hides the docking window when focus is on that window. Ctrl+Shift+H
Highlights cells containing values. Ctrl+Shift+X
Checks spelling in the current sheet. F7
Turns additional selection mode on or off. In this mode, you can use the arrow keys to extend the selection. You can also click in another cell to extend the selection. F8
Show window tabs list. Ctrl+F8
Recalculates all formulas in the sheet. F9 (Mac special use)
Opens the Style List. F11 (Mac special use)
Updates selected chart. Ctrl+F9
Ungroups the selected data range. Ctrl+F12
Move to main menu. Ctrl+F10
Increases the height of the current row. Alt+Down Arrow
Decreases the height of the current row. Alt+Up Arrow
Increases the width of the current column. Alt+Right Arrow
Decreases the width of the current column. Alt+Left Arrow
Optimizes the column width or row height based on the current cell. Alt+Shift+Up/Down/Left/Right Arrow
Recalculates the cell. Ctrl+Shift+F9

Formatting cells using shortcut keys

Description Shortcut
Two decimal places, thousands separator Ctrl+Shift+1 (not the numeric keypad)
Standard exponential format Ctrl+Shift+2 (not the numeric keypad)
Standard date format Ctrl+Shift+3 (not the numeric keypad)
Standard currency format Ctrl+Shift+4 (not the numeric keypad)
Standard percentage format (two decimal places) Ctrl+Shift+5 (not the numeric keypad)
Standard format Ctrl+Shift+6 (not the numeric keypad)
Switch bidirectional text layout to right-to-left, right-aligned
Note: Bidirectional text, for example Hebrew or Arabic language text, is normally read from right-to left.
Ctrl+Shift (Right)
Note: You must first enable complex text language (CTL) in Lotus Symphony Preferences. Select File > Preferences > Symphony > Language Settings > Languages, and make sure that Complex text layout (CTL) support is enabled.
Switch bidirectional text layout to left-to-right, left-aligned
Note: Bidirectional text, for example Hebrew or Arabic language text, is normally read from right-to left.
Ctrl+Shift (Left)
Note: You must first enable complex text language (CTL) in Lotus Symphony Preferences. Select File > Preferences > Symphony > Language Settings > Languages, and make sure that Complex text layout (CTL) support is enabled.

Using shortcut keys with the DataPilot

Description Shortcut
Changes the focus by moving forward through the areas and buttons of the window. Tab
Changes the focus by moving backward through the areas and buttons of the window. Shift+Tab
Moves the focus up one item in the current window. Up Arrow
Moves the focus down one item in the current window. Down Arrow
Selects the first item in the current window. Home
Selects the last item in the current window. End
Multiple selection. Ctrl+Click
Opens the Layout menu. Alt+L
Removes the current field from the area. Delete
Launch filter window when focus on the field in the DataPilot table. Ctrl+D
Select the current item only In the filter window. Ctrl+I
Clear the current item only In the filter window. Ctrl+Shift+I
Switch between the DataPilot table and the DataPilot panel. F6
Launch field menu when focus on one field on the DataPilot panel. Enter

Using keyboard navigation in the Outline window

Description Shortcut
Gives focus to the vertical or horizontal outline window. F6 or Shift+F6
Cycles through all visible buttons from top to bottom, or left to right.. Tab
Cycles through all visible buttons in the opposite direction. Shift+Tab
Shows all levels up to the specified number, hiding all higher levels. Ctrl+1 to Ctrl+8
Shows or hides the focused outline group. + or -
Activates the focused button. Enter
Cycles through all buttons in the current level. Up/Down/Left/Right Arrow

Cell selection mode

For text boxes that have a button to minimize the window, press F2 to enter the cell selection mode. Select any number of cells, then press F2 again to display the window. In cell selection mode, you can use the common navigation keys to select cells.

Working with spreadsheets

This section introduces how you can work with spreadsheets, such as text formatting, working with cells and so on.

Assigning Formats by Formula

The STYLE() function can be added to an existing formula in a cell. For example, together with the CURRENT function, you can color a cell depending on its value. The formula =...+STYLE(IF(CURRENT()>3; "Red"; "Green")) applies the cell style "Red" to cells if the value is greater than 3, otherwise the cell style "Green" is applied.

If you would like to apply a formula to all cells in a selected area, you can use the Find and Replace dialog.

  1. Select all the desired cells.

  2. Select the menu command Edit - Find and Replace.

  3. For the Search for term, enter: .*

    ".*" is a regular expression that designates the contents of the current cell.

  4. Enter the following formula in the Replace with field: =&+STYLE(IF(CURRENT()>3;"Red";"Green"))

    The "&" symbol designates the current contents of the Search for field. The line must begin with an equal sign, since it is a formula. It is assumed that the cell styles "Red" and "Green" already exist.

  5. Mark the fields Regular expressions and Current selection only. Click Find All.

    All cells with contents that were included in the selection are now highlighted.

  6. Click Replace all.

Applying Cell Formatting Conditions

Using the menu command Layout - Cell Formatting Conditions, the dialog allows you to define up to three conditions per cell, which must be met in order for the selected cells to have a particular format.

Warning Icon To apply conditional formatting, Instant Calculate must be enabled. Choose Tools - Cell Contents - Instant Calculate (you see a check mark next to the command when Instant Calculate is enabled).

With conditional formatting, you can, for example, highlight the totals that exceed the average value of all totals. If the totals change, the formatting changes correspondingly, without having to apply other styles manually.

  1. Select the cells to which you want to apply a conditional style.

  2. Choose Layout - Cell Formatting Conditions.

  3. Enter the condition(s) into the dialog box. The dialog is described in detail in Lotus Symphony Help, and an example is provided below:

Example of Cell Formatting Conditions: Generate Number Values

You want to give certain values in your tables particular emphasis. For example, in a table of turnovers, you can show all the values above the average in green and all those below the average in red. This is possible with conditional formatting.

  1. First of all, write a table in which a few different values occur. For your test you can create tables with any random numbers:

    In one of the cells enter the formula =RAND(), and you will obtain a random number between 0 and 1. If you want integers of between 0 and 50, enter the formula =INT(RAND()*50).

  2. Copy the formula to create a row of random numbers. Click the bottom right corner of the selected cell, and drag to the right until the desired cell range is selected.

  3. In the same way as described above, drag down the corner of the rightmost cell in order to create more rows of random numbers.

Example of Cell Formatting Conditions: Define Cell Styles

The next step is to apply a cell style to all values that represent above-average turnover, and one to those that are below the average. Ensure that the Style List window is visible before proceeding.

  1. Click in a blank cell and select the command Text and Cell Properties in the context menu.

  2. In the Text and Cell Properties dialog on the Background tab, select a background color. Click OK.

  3. In the Style List window, click the New icon. Enter the name of the new style. For this example, name the style "Above".

  4. To define a second style, click again in a blank cell and proceed as described above. Assign a different background color for the cell and assign a name (for this example, "Below").

Example of Cell Formatting Conditions: Calculate Average

In our particular example, we are calculating the average of the random values. The result is placed in a cell:

  1. Set the cursor in a blank cell, for example, J14, and choose Create - Function.

  2. Select the AVERAGE function. Use the mouse to select all your random numbers. If you cannot see the entire range, because Function is obscuring it, you can temporarily shrink the dialog using the Shrink / Maximize icon.

  3. Close Function with OK.

Example of Cell Formatting Conditions: Apply Cell Style

Now you can apply the conditional formatting to the sheet:

  1. Select all cells with the random numbers.

  2. Choose the Layout - Cell Formatting Conditions command to open the corresponding dialog.

  3. Define the condition as follows: If cell value is less than J14, format with cell style "Below", and if cell value is greater than or equal to J14, format with cell style "Above".

Example of Cell Formatting Conditions: Copy Cell Style

To apply the conditional formatting to other cells later:

  1. Click one of the cells that has been assigned conditional formatting.

  2. Copy the cell to the clipboard.

  3. Select the cells that are to receive this same formatting.

  4. Choose Edit - Paste Special. The Paste Special dialog appears.

  5. In the Selection area, check only the Formats box. All other boxes must be unchecked. Click OK.

Undoing direct formatting in Spreadsheet

You can undo all formatting that has not been made by styles in a few steps.

Direct and Style Formatting

If you format a document without Styles, it is referred to as "direct" formatting. This means modifying text or other objects, such as frames or tables, by applying various attributes directly. The format applies only to the selected area and all changes must be made separately. Styles, on the other hand, are not applied to the text directly, but rather are defined in the Style List window and then applied. One advantage is that when you change a Style, all parts of the document to which that Style is assigned are modified at the same time.

You can remove direct formatting from your document by selecting the entire text with the shortcut keys Ctrl+A and then choosing Layout - Default Formatting.

Removing all Direct Formatting in a Lotus Symphony Documents

  1. Press Ctrl+A to select the whole text.

  2. Choose Layout - Default Formatting.

Removing all Direct Formatting in a Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

  1. While pressing the Shift key click the first and then the last sheet tab to select all sheets.

  2. Press Ctrl+A to select the whole text.

  3. Choose Layout - Default Formatting.

Removing all Direct Formatting in a Lotus Symphony Presentations

  1. Click the Outline tab to open outline view.

  2. Press Ctrl+A to select the whole text.

  3. Choose Layout - Default Formatting.

Copying to Multiple Sheets

You can insert values, text, or formulas that are simultaneously copied to the identical positions in other selected sheets of your document.

  1. Select the cells that you want to copy.
  2. Select the sheets by pressing the Shift or Ctrl key, and clicking the corresponding sheet tabs at the bottom margin of the workspace. All selected tabs are now white.
  3. Click Edit > Paste, the copied values, text, or formulas display in the identical positions in the other selected sheets.

Selecting Multiple Cells

Select a rectangular range

With the mouse button pressed, drag from one corner to the diagonally opposed corner of the range.

Mark a single cell

Do one of the following:

  • Click, then Shift-click the cell.

  • Pressing the mouse button, drag a range across two cells, do not release the mouse button, and then drag back to the first cell. You can now move the individual cell by drag and drop.

Select various dispersed cells

Mark at least one cell. Then while pressing Ctrl, click each of the additional cells.

Switch marking mode

On the status bar, click the box with the legend Standard / Extension / Addition to switch the marking mode:

Table 1. Marking mode options
Field contents Effect of clicking the mouse
Standard A mouse click selects the cell you have clicked on. Unmarks all marked cells.
Extension A mouse click marks a rectangular range from the current cell to the cell you clicked.
Addition A mouse click in a cell adds it to the already marked cells. A mouse click in a marked cell unmarks it. Alternatively, Ctrl-click the cells.

Merging and Unmerging Sheet Cells

In IBM® Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, you can select adjacent cells, then merge them into a single cell. Conversely, you can take a large cell that has been created by merging single cells, and divide it back into individual cells.

Merging Cells

  1. Select the adjacent cells.

  2. Choose Layout - Merge Cells.

Canceling the merging of cells

  1. Place the cursor in the cell to be split.

  2. Choose Layout - Merge Cells.

Decimal Format

  1. Set the cursor at the number and choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cells Properties to start the Format Cells dialog.

  2. On the Numbers tab you will see a selection of predefined number formats. In the bottom right in the dialog you will see a preview of how your current number would look if you were to give it a particular format.

User-defined Number Formats

You can define your own number formats to display numbers in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

As an example, to display the number 10,200,000 as 10.2 Million:

  1. Select the cells to which you want to apply a new, user-defined format.

  2. Choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties - Numbers.

  3. In the Categories list box select "User-defined".

  4. In the Format code text box enter the following code:

    0.0,, "Million"

  5. Click OK.

The following table shows the effects of rounding, thousands delimiters (,), decimal delimiters (.) and the placeholders # and 0.

Table 2. Format codes and their effects
Number .#,, "Million" 0.0,, "Million" #,, "Million"
10200000 10.2 Million 10.2 Million 10 Million
500000 .5 Million 0.5 Million 1 Million
100000000 100. Million 100.0 Million 100 Million

Formatting Numbers as Text

You can format numbers as text in a spreadsheet. When numbers are formatted as text, they cannot be used in calculations or formulas.

If you need to enter a number directly as text, enter an apostrophe (') first. For example, to input years as text in column headings, you can enter '1999, '2000 and '2001. The apostrophe is not visible in the cell; it only indicates that the entry is to be recognized as text. For example, use the apostrophe when you enter a telephone number or postal code that begins with a zero (0), because a 0 at the start of a sequence of digits is removed in normal number formats.
Note: If you have already entered numbers in cells and, afterwards, changed the format of the cells to Text, the numbers remain numbers and are not converted. Only numbers entered after you specify that they are text, or numbers which are edited, become text.
  1. Select the cells in which you want numbers displayed as text.
  2. Click Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties.
  3. In the Category area, select Text. Any numbers subsequently entered into the formatted range are interpreted as text. The display of these "numbers" is left-justified, just as with other text.

Inserting and Editing Comments

You can assign a comment to each cell by choosing Create - Comment . The comment is indicated by a small red square, the comment indicator, in the cell.

  • When you select the cell, you can choose Show Comment from the context menu of the cell. Doing so keeps the comment visible until you deactivate the Show Comment command from the same context menu.

  • When you attach a comment to cell, a callout appears where you can enter your text. A small red square marks the position of a comment in a sheet. To view the comment, rest your mouse pointer over the cell. Or in the comment-attached cell, right click to choose Show Comment.

  • To edit a comment, click in the cell containing the comment, and then select Create - Comment .Or in the comment-attached cell, right click to choose Edit Comment.

  • To set the printing options for comments in your spreadsheet, choose File - Page Setup... , and then click on the Sheet tab.

Renaming Sheets

The name of a sheet is independent of the name of the spreadsheet and you can rename the sheets. The name of a sheet can consist only of letters and numbers. Spaces are also permitted.

You enter the spreadsheet name when you save it for the first time as a file. The document can contain up to 256 individual sheets, which can have different names.
Note Icon You cannot rename the sheets when multiple sheets are selected.
  1. Click the name of the sheet that you want to change.
  2. Right-click the sheet to open the context menu and select Rename Sheet, or double-click the name of the sheet. The Rename Sheet window displays.
  3. Enter a new name for the sheet and click OK.

Changing Row Height or Column Width

You can change the height of a row by dragging it or by specifying its dimension. What is described here for rows and row height applies accordingly for columns and column width.

  • To drag the row height or column width:
    1. Click the area of the headers on the separator below the current row, keep the mouse button pressed and drag up or down to change the row height.
    2. Select the optimal height by double-clicking the separator below the row.
  • Specify the row height or column width.
    1. Click the row number so that the row is selected.
    2. Right-click the row number to display the context menu. Click Layout > Row > Height or Optimal height. The Row Height window allows you to change the height of the current row or the selected rows. The Optimal height window allows you to add the height to the current height.

Changing Table Views

To permanently hide column and line headers in a table:

  • Under the menu item File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, go to the View tab page. Unmark Column/row headers. Confirm with OK.

To hide grid lines:

  • Under the menu item File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets , go to the View tab page. Unmark Grid lines. Confirm with OK.

Using Round Numbers

By default, all decimal numbers are displayed as round numbers to two decimal places. You can change this option for selected cells or for a whole spreadsheet. You can also make sure that calculations are performed using round numbers.

  • To change this option for selected cells
    1. Mark the cells that you want to modify
    2. Click Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties and click the Numbers tab.
    3. In the Category field, select Number. Under Options, change the number of decimal places and click OK.
  • To permanently change this option everywhere
    1. Click File > Preferences > Symphony > Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.
    2. Click Calculate. Modify the number of decimal places displayed and click OK.
  • To calculate with the rounded numbers instead of the internal, exact values
    1. Click File > Preferences > Symphony > Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.
    2. Click Calculate. Select Precision as shown and click OK.

Only Copy Visible Cells

Assume you have hidden a few rows in a cell range. Now you want to copy, delete, or format only the remaining visible rows.

Lotus Symphony behavior depends on how the cells were made invisible, by a filter or manually.

Table 3. Cell behavior when being copied
Method and Action Result

Cells were filtered by instant filters, standard filters or special filters.

Copy, delete, move, or format a selection of currently visible cells.

Only the visible cells of the selection are copied, deleted, moved, or formatted.

Cells were hidden using the Hide command in the context menu of the row or column headers, or through an outline.

Copy, delete, move, or format a selection of currently visible cells.

All cells of the selection, including the hidden cells, are copied, deleted, moved, or formatted.

Copying formatting with duplicate formatting in Spreadsheets

You can use the Format Paintbrush tool to copy formatting from a text selection in Lotus® Symphony™ Documents or from an object and apply the formatting to another text selection or object.

  1. Select the text or object whose formatting you want to copy.

  2. On the toolbar, click the Duplicate Formatting icon.

    Tip Icon If you want to apply the formatting to more than one selection, double-click the Duplicate Formatting icon {ENTER ALTERNATE DESCRIPTION HERE}. After you apply all the formatting, click the icon again.
  3. Select or click the text or object that you want to apply the formatting to.

Tip Icon To exclude paragraph formatting, hold down Ctrl when you click. To exclude character formatting, hold down Ctrl+Shift when you click.

The following table describes the formatting attributes that the Duplicate Formatting can copy:

Type of Selection Comment
Nothing selected, but cursor is inside a text passage Copies the formatting of the current paragraph and the character formatting of the next character in the text flow direction.
Text is selected Copies the formatting of the last selected character and of the paragraph that contains the character.
Frame is selected Copies the frame attributes that are defined in Layout - Properties - Frame Properties. The contents, size, position, linking, hyperlinks, and macros in the frame are not copied.
Object is selected Copies the object formatting that is defined in the Layout - Properties - Area/Line/Text Object Properties/Graphic Properties/Control Properties/Form Properties. The contents, size, position, hyperlinks, and macros in the object are not copied.
Form control is selected Not supported
Drawing object is selected Copies all formatting attributes. In Lotus Symphony Presentations, the text contents of the object is also copied.
Text within drawing object or within Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets cells is selected Not supported
Lotus Symphony Documents table or cells are selected Copies the formatting that is specified in Table, Text Flow, Borders, and Background tab pages in the Table - Table Properties. The paragraph and character formatting are also copied.
Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets table or cells are selected Copies the formatting that is specified in the Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties dialog as well as the formatting of the cell contents

Inserting line breaks in cells

You can insert line breaks in spreadsheet cells and document tables.

  • To insert line breaks in spreadsheet cells, press the Ctrl+Enter or Alt+Enter keys. This will work only with the text edit cursor inside the cell, not at the input line. So first double-click the cell, then single-click at the text position where you want the line break.
  • To format spreadsheet cells for automatic line wrapping,
    1. Select the cells for which you want an automatic line break.
    2. Choose Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties > Alignment.
    3. Select Wrap text automatically.
  • To insert line breaks in document table cells, press the Enter key. An automatic line break will be performed while you type across the end of each cell.

Rotating text in Spreadsheets

  1. Select the cells whose text you want to rotate.

  2. Choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties. You will see the Text and Cell Properties dialog.

  3. Click the Alignment tab.

  4. In the Text orientation area use the mouse to select in the preview wheel the direction in which the text is to be rotated. Click OK.

In the Text orientation area, if you select Vertically stacked, the text is written vertically in the direction of the characters.

Writing Multi-line Text

To insert a manual line break, press the Ctrl+Enter or Alt+Enter keys. This shortcut only works directly in the cell, not in the input line.

If you want the text to automatically break at the right border of the cell, proceed as follows:

  1. Select all the cells where you want the text to break at the right border.

  2. In Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties, mark the Wrap text automatically option and click OK.

Text Superscript / Subscript

  1. In the cell, select the character that you want to put in superscript or subscript.

    If, for example, you want to write H20 with a subscript 2, select the 2 in the cell (not in the input line).

  2. Open the context menu for the selected character and choose Text Properties. You will see the Text Properties dialog.

  3. Click the Font Position tab.

  4. Select the Subscript option and click OK.

Entering Values

Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets can simplify entering data and values into multiple cells. You can change some settings to conform to your preferences.

To enter values into a range of cells manually

There are two features that assist you when you enter a block of data manually.

Area detection for new rows

In the row below a heading row, you can advance from one cell to the next with the Tab key. After you enter the value into the last cell in the current row, press Enter. Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets positions the cursor below the first cell of the current block.

Area selection

Use drag-and-drop to select the area where you want to input values. But start dragging from the last cell of the area and release the mouse button when you have selected the first cell. Now you can start to input values. Always press the Tab key to advance to the next cell. You will not leave the selected area.

To enter values to a range of cells automatically

See Automatically Filling in Data Based on Adjacent Cells.

Entering Formulas Using the Formula Bar

You can use the formula bar to enter formulas into your spreadsheets. You can also enter values and formulas directly into cells. Formulas must always begin with an equal (=) sign.

File > Preferences > Symphony > Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets > View
  1. Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
  2. Click the Function icon on the formula bar. An equal (=) sign displays in the input line and you can begin to input the formula.
  3. After entering the required values, press the Enter key or click Accept to insert the result in the active cell. If you want to clear your entry in the input line, press the Escape key or click Cancel.

Copying Formulas

There are various ways to copy a formula. One suggested method is:

  1. Select the cell containing the formula.

  2. Choose Edit - Copy, or press Ctrl+C to copy it.

  3. Select the cell into which you want the formula to be copied.

  4. Choose Edit - Paste, or press Ctrl+V. The formula will be positioned in the new cell.

If you want to copy a formula into multiple cells, there is a quick and easy way to copy into adjacent cell areas:

  1. Select the cell containing the formula.

  2. Position the mouse on the bottom right of the highlighted border of the cell, and continue holding down the mouse button until the pointer changes to a cross-hair symbol.

  3. With the mouse button pressed, drag it down or to the right over all the cells into which you want to copy the formula.

  4. When you release the mouse button, the formula will be copied into the cells and automatically adjusted.

If you do not want values and texts to be automatically adjusted, then hold down the Ctrl key when dragging. Formulas, however, are always adjusted accordingly.

Adding a calculation

You can perform a calculation using formulas. The formulas can contain numbers or text, and other data is also possible such as format details. The formulas also contain arithmetic operators, logic operators or function starts.

The basic arithmetic signs (+, -, *, /) can be used in formulas using the rule Multiplication and Division before Addition and Subtraction. Instead of writing =SUM(A1:B1) it is better to write =A1+B1.

Parentheses can also be used. The result of the formula =(1+2)*3 produces a different result than =1+2*3.

Here are a few examples of formulas:

=A1+10 Displays the contents of cell A1 plus 10.
=A1*16% Displays 16% of the contents of A1.
=A1 * A2 Displays the result of the multiplication of A1 and A2.
=ROUND(A1;1) Rounds the contents in cell A1 to one decimal place.
=EFFECTIVE(5%;12) Calculates the effective interest for 5% annual nominal interest with 12 payments a year.
=B8-SUM(B10:B14) Calculates B8 minus the sum of the cells B10 to B14.
=SUM(B8;SUM(B10:B14)) Calculates the sum of cells B10 to B14 and adds the value to B8.
=SUM(B1:B32000) Sums all numbers in column B.

It is also possible to nest function in formulas, as shown in the example. You can also nest functions within functions. The following example of a calculation describes a percentage calculation that you can perform in a spreadsheet:

  1. Position the cursor in cell A3.
  2. Enter the number 150 and press the Enter key. The cursor then moves down to cell A4.
  3. Enter the number 16 in cell A4. This time, however, press the Tab key to move the cursor to the right to cell B4.
  4. Enter =A3*A4/100 in cell B4. When you start the input with an equal sign (=), you are indicating that you want to enter a formula. The formula displays in the input line of the formula bar. Example formula in the spreadsheet.
  5. Press Enter to finish the formula and see the result of the calculation (16 percent of 150) in cell B4.
  6. Click cell A3, enter 200, and press the Enter key. Notice that the calculation result is adjusted automatically.
  7. Click cell B4, and then click at the end of the formula in the input line of the formula bar. A blinking text cursor indicates that you can make a new entry.
  8. Add + A3 to the formula and press the Enter key. The newly calculated value of the formula displays in cell B4: the previous 16 percent of A3 plus the contents of A3.

Calculating With Dates and Times

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, you can perform calculations with current date and time values. As an example, to find out exactly how old you are in seconds or hours, follow the following steps:

  1. In a spreadsheet, enter your birthday in cell A1.

  2. Enter the following formula in cell A3: =NOW()-A1

  3. After pressing the Enter key you will see the result in date format. Since the result should show the difference between two dates as a number of days, you must format cell A3 as a number.

  4. Place the cursor in cell A3, right-click to open a context menu and choose Text and Cell Properties.

  5. The Text and Cell Properties dialog appears. On the Numbers tab, the Number category will appear already highlighted. The format is set to "General", which causes the result of a calculation containing date entries to be displayed as a date. To display the result as a number, set the number format to "-1,234" and close the dialog with the OK button.

  6. The number of days between today's date and the specified date is displayed in cell A3.

  7. Experiment with some additional formulas: in A4 enter =A3*24 to calculate the hours, in A5 enter =A4*60 for the minutes, and in A6 enter =A5*60 for seconds. Press the Enter key after each formula.

The time since your date of birth will be calculated and displayed in the various units. The values are calculated as of the exact moment when you entered the last formula and pressed the Enter key. This value is not automatically updated, although "Now" continuously changes. In the Tools menu, the menu item Cell Contents - Instant Calculate is normally active; however, automatic calculation does not apply to the function NOW. This ensures that your computer is not solely occupied with updating the sheet.

Calculating Time Differences

You can calculate time differences using a formula in a spreadsheet.

This example shows the steps to calculate time differences in the same night.
  1. Enter the time 23:30 in A2 and press the Tab key. The cursor moves to B2.
  2. Enter the time 01:10 in B2 and press the Tab key. The cursor moves to C2.
  3. Enter the formula =(B2<A2)+B2-A2 in C2. The later time is B2 and the earlier time is A2. The result of the example is 01:40 or 1 hour and 40 minutes. In the formula, an entire 24-hour day has a value of 1 and one hour has a value of 1/24. The logical value in parentheses is 0 or 1, corresponding to 0 or 24 hours. The result returned by the formula is automatically issued in time format due to the sequence of the operands.

Entering Fractions

You can enter a fractional number in a cell and use it for calculation:

  • Enter "0 1/5" in a cell (without the quotation marks) and press the input key. In the input line above the spreadsheet you will see the value 0.2, which is used for the calculation.

If you enter "0 1/2" Instant Corrections causes the three characters 1, / and 2 to be replaced by a single character. The same applies to 1/4 and 3/4. This replacement is defined in Tools - Instant Corrections - Replace tab.

If you want to see multi-digit fractions such as "1/10", you must change the cell format to the multi-digit fraction view. Open the context menu of the cell, and choose Text and Cell Properties. Select "Fraction" from the Category field, and then select "-1234 10/81". You can then enter fractions such as 12/31 or 12/32 - the fractions are, however, automatically reduced, so that in the last example you would see 3/8.

Entering a Number with Leading Zeros

There are various ways to enter integers starting with a zero:

  • Enter the number as text. The easiest way is to enter the number starting with an apostrophe (for example, '0987). The apostrophe will not appear in the cell, and the number will be formatted as text. Because it is in text format, however, you cannot calculate with this number.

  • Format a cell with a number format such as \0000. This format can be assigned in the Format code field under the Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties - Numbers tab, and defines the cell display as "always put a zero first and then the integer, having at least three places, and filled with zeros at the left if less than three digits".

If you want to apply a numerical format to a column of numbers in text format (for example, text "000123" becomes number "123"), do the following:

  1. Select the column in which the digits are found in text format. Set the cell format in that column as "Number".

  2. Choose Edit - Find and Replace

  3. In the Search for box, enter ^[0-9]

  4. In the Replace with box, enter &

  5. Check Regular expressions

  6. Check Current selection only

  7. Click Replace All

Applying Multiple Sheets

By default IBM Lotus Symphony displays one sheet A, in each new spreadsheet.

Create sheet

You can insert either a new sheet or an existing sheet from another file by using the Create > Sheets... command or right-clicking a sheet and select Create Sheet....

Select multiple sheets

You can select a sheet or multiple sheets by using Edit > Sheet > Select command, or simply clicking target sheets with holding Shift or Ctrl.

To select all sheets, you can also right-click a sheet and select Select All Sheets.

The sheet tab of the current sheet is always visible in white in front of the other sheet tabs. The other sheet tabs are gray when they are not selected.

Remove selection

Simply clicking any sheet tab will remove the selection of other sheets.

To remove the selection of one of the multiple sheets, click the very sheet tab with pressing the Ctrl key. The sheet that is currently focused on cannot be removed from the selection.

Write values simultaneously to multiple sheets

If multiple sheets are selected, all values entered into the active sheet are automatically inserted into the other selected sheets. For example, data entered in Sheet 1, cell A1 is automatically entered into the same cell in Sheet 2.

Calculate function across multiple sheets

As an example, enter the formula as follows: =MEAN(Sheet1.A1:Sheet50.A1). In the formula cell the mean is now shown across all the A1 cells of your 50 sheets.

Hiding Data Ranges

Filters and special filters let you ensure that only certain rows (records) of a data range are visible.

  • The Instant Filter function quickly restricts the display to data ranges with identical entries in a data field.
  • In the Filter window, you can also define ranges which contain the values in particular data fields. You can use the standard filter to connect up to three conditions with either a logical AND or a logical OR operator.
  • The Special filter exceeds the three condition limitation and allows up to a total of eight filter conditions. With special filters you enter the conditions directly into the sheet
  • If you select rows for filters and then want to delete these, before deleting you must first click all the rows visible after the filter individually while pressing the Ctrl key. This action ensures that only these rows are selected and then deleted.

Filter and Sorting

Filters

Filters allow you to display only certain records which comply with your criteria. In spreadsheet there are three kinds of filters including instant filter, standard filter and special filter. The criteria you can set in standard filter is more complicated than that in instant filter. Special filter allows you to define special criteria for filter.

Sort lists

Sort lists allow you to type one piece of information in a cell, then drag it to fill in a consecutive list of items. This feature provides convenience to input a list of consecutive items in spreadsheet.

Automatically Calculating Sequence

  1. Enter a number in a cell.
  2. With the mouse, drag the bottom right corner of the cell downwards.
  3. When you release the mouse button, the cells selected in this manner are filled with numbers. The number you entered is increased by 1 in each case.

If you have selected two or more adjacent cells, that contain different numbers, and you drag these together, any recognizable arithmetic pattern of the numbers is continued.

An example: If A1 contains the number 1 and A2 the number 3, then joint copying of the two cells by dragging downwards causes the sequence to continue with 5, 7, 9, 11 and so on.

  1. First select the range in the table that you want to fill.

  2. In the dialog, which you can open by choosing Edit - Fill - Sequence, select the type of sequence. For example, select 2 as the starting value, 2 as the increment and Growth as the Sequence type . The result in this case is a list of the powers of 2.

Table sheet with the dialog Fill Sequence

You can also automatically fill in sequence of dates. For example, to insert the first date of each month of the year as row headers:

  1. Enter a date, such as "1/1/03", into a cell (without the quotation marks).

  2. Select this cell and the 11 cells below it.

  3. Choose Edit - Fill - Sequence.

  4. In the dialog, select Month under Time unit. Click OK.

    The first day of each month automatically appears in the selected cells.

Filtering Cell Ranges

You can use several filters to filter cell ranges in spreadsheets. A standard filter uses the options that you specify to filter the data. An Instant Filter filters data according to a specific value or string. An special filter uses filter criteria from specified cells.

To Apply a Standard Filter to a Cell Range

  1. Click in a cell range.

  2. Choose Data - Filter - Standard Filter.

  3. In the Standard Filter dialog, specify the filter options that you want.

  4. Click OK.

    The records that match the filter options that you specified are shown.

To Apply an Instant Filter to a Cell Range

  1. Click in a cell range.

  2. Choose Data - Filter - Instant Filter.

    An arrow button is added to the head of each column in the range.

  3. Click the arrow button in the column that contains the value or string that you want to set as the filter criteria.

  4. Select the value or string that you want to use as the filter criteria.

    The records that match the filter criteria that you selected are shown.

To Remove a Filter From a Cell Range

  1. Click in a filtered cell range.

  2. Choose Data - Filter - Show All.

Applying Sort Lists

Sort lists allow you to type one piece of information in a cell, then drag it to fill in a consecutive list of items.

For example, enter the text "Jan" or "January" in an empty cell. Select the cell and click the mouse on the lower right corner of the cell border. Then drag the selected cell a few cells to the right or downwards. When you release the mouse button, the highlighted cells will be filled with the names of the months.

The predefined series can be found under File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - Sort Lists . You can also create your own lists tailored to your needs, such as a list of your company's branch offices. When you use the information in these lists later (for example, as headings), just enter the first name in the list and expand the entry by dragging it with your mouse.

Applying Instant Filter

The Instant Filter function inserts a combo box on one or more data columns that lets you select the records (rows) to be displayed.

  1. Select the columns you want to use Instant Filter on.

  2. Choose Data - Filter - Instant Filter. The combo box arrows are visible in the first row of the range selected.

  3. Run the filter by clicking the drop-down arrow in the column heading and choosing an item.

    Only those rows whose contents meet the filter criteria are displayed. The other rows are filtered. You can see if rows have been filtered from the discontinuous row numbers. The column that has been used for the filter is identified by a different color for the arrow button.

You can instantly sort the data by selecting -Sort Ascending- or -Sort Descending- in the Instant Filter combo box. The -Sort Ascending- or -Sort Descending- operation has effect on all the data in the column, but only the filtered data is displayed.

When you select a filter option in another column of a filtered data range, the other combo box list only the filtered data.

To display all records again, select the -(All)- entry in the Instant Filter combo box. If you choose -(Standard Filter...)-, the Standard Filter dialog appears, allowing you to set up a standard filter. Choose -(Top 10)- to display the highest 10 values only.

To stop using Instant Filter, reselect all cells selected in step 1 and once again choose Data - Filter - Instant Filter.

Tip Icon To assign different instant filters to different sheets, you must first define a range on each sheet.
Warning Icon The arithmetic functions also take account of the cells that are not visible due to an applied filter. For example, a sum of an entire column will also total the values in the filtered cells. Apply the SUBTOTAL function if only the cells visible after the application of a filter are to be taken into account.

Applying Special Filters

If the data you want to filter requires complex criteria you can use the special filter. Defines a filter that can combine up to eight different filter criteria.

  1. Copy the column headers of the sheet ranges to be filtered into an empty area of the sheet, and then enter the criteria for the filter in a row beneath the headers. Horizontally arranged data in a row is logically connected with AND, and vertically arranged data in a column is logically connected with OR. Please refer to the following example for instructions.
    1. Create a table contains 3 columns, the headers are City, Population and Average Salary. 3 rows in the table, Bei Jing, Tokyo and Shang Hai. Refer to the following table:
      Table 4. Sample table
      City Population Average Salary
      Bei Jing 17400000 5000
      Toyko 10000000 7000
      Shang Hai 19000000 6000
    2. Copy the column headers into an empty area of the sheet, they are column City, Population and Average Salary.
    3. To filter the city name, e.g. target cities are in China, input ="Bei Jing" in one row beneath City, press the accept button on the formula toolbar. Input "=Shang Hai" in another row beneath City, press the accept button on the formula toolbar.
    4. To filter the city whose population is greater than 15,000,000 and Average Salary is less than 5000 RMB, input ">15,000,000" in one row beneath Population, press the accept button on the formula toolbar. Input ">5000" in the same row of ">15,000,000" and different column, press the accept button on the formula toolbar.
  2. After you have created a filter matrix, select the sheet ranges to be filtered. Click Data > Filter > Special Filter, and define the filter conditions.
  3. Click OK, and only the rows from the original sheet whose contents have met the search criteria are still visible. All other rows are hidden until you click Layout > Row > Show .

Naming Cells

IBM Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets lets you assign names to cell ranges.

  1. Select a cell or range of cells, then choose Create - Names - Define . The Define Names dialog appears.
  2. Type the name of the selected area in the Name field. Click Add . The newly defined name appears in the list below. Click OK to close the dialog.

If you type the name in a formula, after the first few characters entered you will see the entire name as a tip.

  • Press the Enter key in order to accept the name from the tip.

  • If more than one name starts with the same characters, you can scroll through all the names using the Tab key.

Recognizing Names as Addressing

You can use cells with text to refer to the rows or to the columns that contain the cells.

This function is active by default. To turn this function off, choose File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - Calculate and clear the Automatically find column and row labels check box.

Tip Icon If you want a name to be automatically recognized by Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, the name must start with a letter and be composed of alphanumeric characters. If you enter the name in the formula yourself, enclose the name in single quotation marks ('). If a single quotation mark appears in a name, you must enter a backslash in front of the quotation mark, for example, 'Harry\'s Bar'.

Using Drag and Drop to Create Cells References

With the help of the Navigator, you can reference cells from one sheet to another sheet in the same spreadsheet. The cells can be inserted as a copy, link or hyperlink. The range to be inserted must be defined with a name in the original file so that it can be inserted in the target file.

  1. Open the spreadsheet that contains the source cells.
  2. To set the source range as the range, select the cells and click Create > Name > Define. Save the source document, and do not close it.
  3. Open the sheet in which you want to insert something.
  4. Open the Navigator by clicking View > Navigator.
  5. Click plus(+) in front of Range names and select the source object.
  6. Right-click and select Drag Mode. Then select the type of the reference that you want, a hyperlink, link, or copy.
  7. Drag the selected source object into the cell of the current sheet where you want to insert the reference.

Addresses and References, Absolute and Relative

Relative Addressing

The cell in column A, row 1 is addressed as A1. You can address a range of adjacent cells by first entering the coordinates of the upper left cell of the area, then a colon followed by the coordinates of the lower right cell. For example, the square formed by the first four cells in the upper left corner is addressed as A1:B2.

By addressing an area in this way, you are making a relative reference to A1:B2. Relative here means that the reference to this area will be adjusted automatically when you copy the formulas.

Absolute Addressing

Absolute references are the opposite of relative addressing. A dollar sign is placed before each letter and number in an absolute reference, for example, $A$1:$B$2.

Tip Icon Lotus Symphony can convert the current reference, in which the cursor is positioned in the input line, from relative to absolute and vice versa by pressing Shift +F4. If you start with a relative address such as A1, the first time you press this key combination, both row and column are set to absolute references ($A$1). The second time, only the row (A$1), and the third time, only the column ($A1). If you press the key combination once more, both column and row references are switched back to relative (A1)

Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets shows the references to a formula. If, for example you click the formula =SUM(A1:C5;D15:D24) in a cell, the two referenced areas in the sheet will be highlighted in color. For example, the formula component "A1:C5" may be in blue and the cell range in question bordered in the same shade of blue. The next formula component "D15:D24" can be marked in red in the same way.

When to Use Relative and Absolute References

What distinguishes a relative reference? Assume you want to calculate in cell E1 the sum of the cells in range A1:B2. The formula to enter into E1 would be: =SUM(A1:B2). If you later decide to insert a new column in front of column A, the elements you want to add would then be in B1:C2 and the formula would be in F1, not in E1. After inserting the new column, you would therefore have to check and correct all formulas in the sheet, and possibly in other sheets.

Fortunately, Lotus Symphony does this work for you. After having inserted a new column A, the formula =SUM(A1:B2) will be automatically updated to =SUM(B1:C2). Row numbers will also be automatically adjusted when a new row 1 is inserted. Absolute and relative references are always adjusted in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets whenever the referenced area is moved. But be careful if you are copying a formula since in that case only the relative references will be adjusted, not the absolute references.

Absolute references are used when a calculation refers to one specific cell in your sheet. If a formula that refers to exactly this cell is copied relatively to a cell below the original cell, the reference will also be moved down if you did not define the cell coordinates as absolute.

Aside from when new rows and columns are inserted, references can also change when an existing formula referring to particular cells is copied to another area of the sheet. Assume you entered the formula =SUM(A1:A9) in row 10. If you want to calculate the sum for the adjacent column to the right, simply copy this formula to the cell to the right. The copy of the formula in column B will be automatically adjusted to =SUM(B1:B9).

Referencing URLs

  1. Open a new, empty spreadsheet.

  2. By way of example, enter the following items in cell A1 of Sheet1:

    =Sheet2.A1

  3. Click the Sheet 2 tab at the bottom of the spreadsheet. Set the cursor in cell A1 there and enter text or a number.

  4. If you switch back to Sheet1, you will see the same content in cell A1 there. If the contents of Sheet2.A1 change, then the contents of Sheet1.A1 also change.

Entering Matrix Formulas

The following is an example of how you can enter a matrix formula, without going into the details of matrix functions.

Assume you have entered 10 numbers in Columns A and B (A1:A10 and B1:B10), and would like to calculate the sum of each row in Column C.

  1. Using the mouse, select the range C1:C10, in which the results are to be displayed.

  2. Press F2, or click in the input line of the Formula bar.

  3. Enter an equal sign (=).

  4. Select the range A1:A10, which contains the first values for the sum formula.

  5. Press the (+) key from the numerical keypad.

  6. Select the numbers in the second column in cells B1:B10.

  7. End the input with the matrix key combination: Shift+Ctrl+Enter.

The matrix area is automatically protected against modifications, such as deleting rows or columns. It is, however, possible to edit any formatting, such as the cell background.

Summarizing large amounts of data using DataPilot

A DataPilot table is an interactive table that provides a summary of large amounts of data. It automatically extracts, organizes, and summarizes your data. You can then rearrange the DataPilot table to view different summaries of the data. For example, you can make comparisons, analyze data relationships or analyze trends.

Working with a DataPilot table

To create a DataPilot table, you need select the data source and choose the place to place the result. After you get an empty DataPilot table, you can define the table structure you want and select different functions to calculate the result. You can also calculate the subtotal, sort for different fields easily.

Selecting Data Source and placing the result

When you create a DataPilot table, you can select the source data and define where to place the result.

To select the data source and place the result in the area that you want, complete the following steps:
  1. Click Data > DataPilot > Create. The Create DataPilot Table window opens.
  2. Click Shrink to temporarily hide the window.
  3. Select the range in the sheet, and then click the Maximize button. The selected cells are the data source.
  4. If you select a cell in a range of cells before you launched the Create DataPilot Table window, the cells around the selected cell are the data source.
  5. Put the cursor in the Range field and type your entries in the Range field to define the data source.
  6. To place the result, click New Sheet.
  7. Click Existing place.
  8. Click the Shrink button to temporarily hide the window.
  9. Select the range in the sheet, and then click the Maximize button. The result is placed in the select range.

Understanding DataPilot areas

Create an empty DataPilot table so that you can understand the concept of DataPilot areas.

Complete the following steps to create an empty DataPilot table.
  1. Position the cursor within a range of cells containing values, row headings, and column headings.
  2. Click Data > DataPilot > Create. The Create DataPilot Table window opens.
  3. Select the data source and the place for the result.
  4. Click OK. An empty DataPilot table displays with instructions and examples.
Before filling values in an empty DataPilot table, you must understand the concept of DataPilot areas.
Table 5. DataPilot areas
Area Definition
Page The area that contains the source data that you assign to a page (or filter) orientation in a DataPilot table. Use a page area to filter the entire report based on the selected item in the DataPilot table.
Column The area that contains the source data that you assign to a column orientation in a DataPilot table.
Row The area that contains the source data that you assign to a row orientation in a DataPilot table.
Data Use a data area to display a summary of numeric data.

Defining the fields in a DataPilot table

You can define the DataPilot table structure to display and analyze the data in a format that you want.

To define the DataPilot structure, complete the following steps:
  • To assign the fields to different areas, do one of the following:
    1. You can drag and drop the fields to page, row, column or data area to define the DataPilot table structure.
    2. Click the arrow on the field button on the DataPilot panel and then select the appropriate item: Add to Page, Add to Column, Add to Rows or Add to Data by to place the field in a specific area.
    Note: If you use drag and drop to assign fields to the data area, the function is set to a default type. If you click Add to Data by to assign fields, you need specify the functions on the sub menu.
  • To remove the fields from an area, there are multiple ways to do it, such as:
  • Click the arrow on the field button on the DataPilot panel and select Remove from Areas.

Selecting the function and the display value

You can select the function and the display value that you want to apply to the data area of a DataPilot table.

The function is determined by the data source, if the data source is a number, then the field option is set to the Sum function by default. If the data source is text or a date, the field option is set to the Count function by default. The display value determines the calculation type you want to use.
  1. Select a DataPilot table.
  2. Click the arrow on the field button or right-click the field name in the data area on the DataPilot panel, and then select Field Option.
  3. Click one of the tabs on Data Field Option and select the appropriate option:
    • Function – Select the function that you want to apply to the data field.
    • Display Value:
      • Display the data value as: For each data field, you can select the type of display. For some types you can select additional information for a base field and a base item.
      • Base field – Select the field from which the respective value is taken as base for the calculation.
      • Base item – Select the item of the base field from which the respective value is taken as base for the calculation.
  4. Click OK.

Using the field option

You can set the field display name, calculate subtotals, and sort the values of page, column, or row areas in a DataPilot table by setting the field option. The current field name is displayed in the title of the window.

  1. Select a DataPilot table.
  2. In the DataPilot panel, click the arrow on the field button in one of the areas: Page, Column and Row. Select Field Option, and then the Field Option window displays. You can also click Field Optionto open the Field Option dialog box.
  3. Optional: Put the cursor in the DataPilot table, right-click Page, Column, or Row, and select Field Option.
  4. Click Field tab and specify the field display name in the Display name field. The display name is shown on the DataPilot table and areas in the DataPilot panel. Select Show items without data if you want the DataPilot table to include the empty columns and rows in the result table.
    Note: The display name cannot be duplicated. If you enter the display name which already exists, a message box opens and you must enter a new name.
  5. Click Subtotals tab and select the appropriate subtotals option:
    • Never – Does not calculate subtotals.
    • Automatically – Automatically calculates subtotals.
    • Manually – Select this option, and then specify the functions to calculate in the list.
    • Using Function – Click the functions to calculate subtotals. This option is only available when the Manually option is selected.
  6. Click Sort tab and select the appropriate sort option:
    • Manually (Select items in the table and drag to organize them) – Sorts items manually by letting you drag them in the table. Use Ctrl+Click to select a single item to drag.
    • Ascending – Automatically sorts the values from the lowest value to the highest value.
    • Descending – Automatically sorts the values from the highest value to the lowest value.
    • Using Field – Select the field to sort.
  7. Click OK.

Updating changes from DataPilot panel to table

The changes are automatically applied to the DataPilot table by default. But when you have a large amount of data, it is recommended to manually update the changes from the DataPilot panel to the DataPilot table.

To update the changes manually:
Clear the Automatically Update check box and then click Update.

Changing the order of fields by moving fields within one area

To change the field order in the DataPilot table, you can move the fields within one area.

Complete one of the following:
  • Click the button on field name in one of the areas, and then select one of the following options:
    • Move up – Moves the field up one position in the area.
    • Move down – Moves the field down position in the area.
  • Drag one field and drop it to other places in the same area.

Removing fields

You can remove the DataPilot fields to define your desired data structure in DataPilot table.

Remove the fields from an area by doing one of the following:
  • Click the button on one of the fields or right-click one of the fields, and select Remove from Areas.
  • Drag the field from the area to the field list.
  • Right-click the items in one of the areas, and select Remove.
  • Right-click the DataPilot table, on the context menu, select Remove Fields..
  • Drag the field from the one to another in the DataPilot table.

Hiding the selected items

You can directly hide the selected items in the DataPilot table.

  1. Right click the cell in the row or column field that you want to hide, on the context menu, select Hide selected items. The row or column is hidden.
  2. To show the hidden items, click the arrow beside the row or column, on the filter window, select the check boxes you want.

Using the DataPilot filter

You can use the DataPilot filter to display rows that meet conditions that you set in a DataPilot table.

Displaying a subset of data by using page fields

If you have included a page field in the DataPilot table, you can select different pages to display the corresponding subset of data in the DataPilot table.

To select different pages, perform the following steps:
  1. In the DataPilot table, click the page filter button on the top. A new drop-down list displayed
  2. In the drop-down list, click one item. Only the rows that meet your selected criteria display.

Displaying or hiding items in a row or column

You can show or hide items in a row or column of a DataPilot table.

To display or hide items in a row or column in a DataPilot table, perform the following steps:
  1. Click the arrow beside a field button in the DataPilot table, and then a new window displays.
  2. In the new window, select or clear the checkbox you want. Only the rows which meet the criteria you set are displayed.
  3. To hide selected items in a DataPilot table, right-click the cell hat you want to hide in the DataPilot table and select Hide selected items.
  4. To show the hidden items, click the arrow beside the row or column in the DataPilot table to open the filter window. In the filter window, and select the check boxes that you want.

Using the data source filter

If you want to filter the DataPilot table with complex conditions, use the data source filter.

To use the data source filter, perform the following steps:
  1. Click Data > DataPilot > Filter, the Filter window displays.
  2. Select one of the logical operators AND / OR for the operator.
  3. Specify the field names from the current table to set them in the argument for field names.
  4. Specifies the comparative operators through which the entries in the Field name and Value fields can be linked for the condition.
  5. Specify a value to filter the field.
  6. Click OK. Only the rows that meet your criteria are displayed.

Displaying the top items in a field

You can display the top or bottom number of items in a field.

To display a certain number of items in a field, perform the following steps:
  1. Click the arrow beside a field in the DataPilot table and a new filter window displays.
  2. Click Top n in the window, then another new window displays.
  3. Select Only display the top n items.
  4. Set the number of items you want to display in Show area.
  5. Select Top or Bottom.
  6. Select one field in Using Field.
  7. Click OK. Only the rows that meet the criteria are displayed.

Manipulating DataPilot tables

You can customize the layout and structure of a DataPilot table to show the data in the format that you want. You can also manipulate the DataPilot table, such as resize, sort, filter the data and so on.

Rearranging fields

You can rearrange fields to put them in different areas or you can move fields to different position within one area.

To arrange the fields, do one of the following tasks:
  • Assign fields to different areas by clicking the arrow on the field button in one of the areas on the DataPilot panel, and then selecting one of the following options:
    • Move to Page – Moves the field to a page area.
    • Move to Column – Moves the field to a column area.
    • Move to row – Moves the field to a row area.
    • Move to Data by – Moves the field to the data area and selects the appropriate formula that is used to calculate the data.
  • Move the fields within one area by clicking the arrow on the field button in one of the areas on the DataPilot panel, and then selecting one of the following options:
    • Move up – Moves the field up one position in the area.
    • Move down – Moves the field down position in the area.
Note: Drag and drop the field is a simple way to arrange the fields too.

Displaying source data

You can see the related source data displayed on a new sheet by double-clicking one of the cells in the DataPilot table.

To open the new sheet containing the related source data in the DataPilot table, perform the following steps:
  1. Select a DataPilot table.
  2. Right-click the DataPilot table, and select DataPilot Table Option.
  3. Select Enable drill to details and click OK.
  4. Double click one of the cell in different area, there are different output.
    1. Double click a cell in a row or column, and the subtotal for the same category is displayed. Other rows or columns are hidden in the DataPilot table.
    2. Double-click the cell in a data area and a new sheet is created before the current DataPilot table. This sheet contains the related source data. If you are using a filter in the DataPilot table, the detailed data in the new sheet does not include the data that is excluded by the filter rule.

Resizing the column widths automatically

The size of the columns in a DataPilot table can be changed automatically when you update the contents of the table.

Follow these steps to automatically resize column widths:
  1. Select a DataPilot table.
  2. Right-click the DataPilot table and select DataPilot Table Option.
  3. In DataPilot Table Option window, select Autoresize column widths when update.
    1. The column width is automatically resized to fit the width of the contents when data is changed in the DataPilot table. Actions that impact the column width include changing the DataPilot table layout by adding, moving, or removing fields, changing the filter rule to change the display range or changing the text length in the source data.

Setting DataPilot table properties

You can set properties of a DataPilot table to ignore empty rows, identify categories and calculate grand totals.

  1. Click Data > DataPilot.
  2. On the DataPilot menu, select DataPilot Table Option. In the window, select one of the following options:
    • Ignore empty rows – Ignores empty fields in the data source.
    • Identify categories – Automatically assigns an empty row with the values from the preceding row.
    • Total columns – Calculates and displays the grand total of the column calculation.
    • Total rows – Calculates and displays the grand total of the row calculation.
    • Enable drill to details – Double click cells of row or column in DataPilot table, some data can be displayed or hidden with this option enabled. Double click cells of data area in DataPilot table, a new sheet which contains the related source data is created with this option enabled.
    • Autoresize column width when update – DataPilot table column width is auto-resized to fit the width of the contents when data changed in the DataPilot table with this option enabled.

Sorting DataPilot tables

You can sort the DataPilot table in ascending, descending, or a self-defined order.

To sort the data in the DataPilot table, complete the following steps.
  1. Click the arrow on the field button in a page, row, or column area on the DataPilot panel.
  2. On the menu, select Field Option.
  3. In the Field Option window, click the Sort tab.
  4. Select Ascending, Descending, or Manually.
  5. Select one of the fields in Using field, and click OK.
  6. If you selected to manually sort, drag the field and the position that you want or cut and paste to organize the order.
  7. Optional: Click Sort ascendingin the DataPilot panel to sort the DataPilot table in ascending order; clickSort descending to sort in descending order.

Retrieving and refreshing the data

You can have the DataPilot table retrieve the new data to display when the data source changes. If multiple DataPilot tables share the same range of data source, then they are using the same DataPilot cache. When one table is refreshed, the other tables are refreshed at the same time

To refresh the DataPilot table, perform the following step:
  1. Right-click one of the cells in the DataPilot table and select Refresh Data. The DataPilot table is refreshed with the latest data source.
  2. Optional: ClickIcon for updating the DataPilot table in the DataPilot panel to refresh the DataPilot table.

Using Variables in Equations

Using variables in equations, you can calculate a value that, as part of a formula, leads to the result you specify for the formula. You thus define the formula with several fixed values and one variable value and the result of the formula.

You can define a formula with several fixed values and one variable value and calculate the result of the formula. For example, to calculate annual interest, create a table with the values for the capital (C), number of years (n), and interest rate (i). The formula is: I = C * n* i / 100.

You can also enter the formula using the variable names as entered in the headings cells:

= 'Capital (C)' * 'Years (n)' * 'Interest rate (i)' / 100.

Each name must be spelled in the formula exactly as it is seen in the cell, and the name must be enclosed in single quotes.

Finding a target value

In this example, the investment capital of $150,000 and an interest rate of 7.5% is calculated to result in annual interest income of $11,250. The cells are formatted after calculation.

  1. Place the cursor in cell E5, and click Tools > Solve Equations. The correct cell is already entered in the field Formula Cell.
  2. Click Variable Cell. In the sheet, click the cell (A5) that contains the value to be changed.
  3. Enter the expected result of the formula in the Target Value field. In this example, the value is 15,000. Click OK.
  4. A window opens and the result is indicated. Click Yes to enter the result in cell A5.

Applying Multiple Operations

Multiple Operations in Columns or Rows

The Data - Multiple Operations command provides a planning tool for "what if" questions.In your spreadsheet, you enter a formula to calculate a result from values that are stored in other cells. Then, you set up a cell range where you enter some fixed values, and the Multiple Operations command will calculate the results depending on the formula.

In the Formula field, enter the cell reference to the formula that applies to the data range. In the Column input cell/Row input cell field, enter the cell reference to the corresponding cell that is part of the formula.

Multiple Operations Across Rows and Columns

Lotus Symphony allows you to carry out joint multiple operations for columns and rows in so-called cross-tables. The formula cell has to refer to both the data range arranged in rows and the one arranged in columns. Select the range defined by both data ranges and call the multiple operation dialog. Enter the reference to the formula in the Formula field. The Row input cell and the Column input cell fields are used to enter the reference to the corresponding cells of the formula.

Validity of Cell Contents

For each cell, you can define entries to be valid. Invalid entries to a cell are rejected.

Warning Icon The validity rule is activated when a new value is entered. If an invalid value has already been inserted into the cell, or if you insert a value in the cell either with drag-and-drop or by copying and pasting, the validity rule does not take effect.
Note Icon You can choose Tools - Detective at any time and choose the command Mark Invalid Data to display which cells contain invalid values.
Using Cell Contents Validity
  1. Select the cells for which you want to define a new validity rule.

  2. Select Data > Validity.

  3. On the Criteria tab page, enter the conditions for new values to be entered into cells.

    1. In the Allow field, select an option.

      If you select Whole numbers, values such as "12.5" are not allowed. Choosing Date allows date information both in the local date format as well as in the form of a serial date. Similarly, the Time condition permits time values such as "12:00" or serial time numbers. Text length stipulates that cells are allowed to contain text only.

    2. Specify the allowed values. Select condition in the Data field. Enter the value allowed in the Value field.

      If you select Cell range in the Allow field, enter a cell range such as "A1:B2" in the Source field. Or you can click the Shrink button Shrink to temporarily hide the tab page. Select a cell range in the sheet. Then click the Maximum button Maximum to go back to the Criteria tab page. The selected cell range is in the Source field.

      If you select List in the Allow field, enter numbers or strings in the Entries field. Strings and numbers can be mixed. Numbers evaluate to their value, so if you enter the number 1 in the list, the entry 100% is also valid.

  4. On the Input Help tab page, enter the title and the text of the tip, which will then be displayed if the cell is selected.

  5. On the Error Alert tab page, select the action to be carried out in the event of an error.

    If you select Stop as the action, invalid entries are not accepted, and the previous cell contents are retained.

    Select Warning or Information to display a dialog in which the entry can either be canceled or accepted.

    If you select Macro, then by using the Browse button you can specify a macro to be run in the event of an error.

    To display the error message, select "Show error message when invalid values are entered".

    Sample macro:

    Function ExampleValidity(CellValue as String, TableCell as String)
    Dim msg as string
    msg = "Invalid value: " & "'" & CellValue & "'"
    msg = msg & " in table: " & "'" & TableCell & "'"
    MsgBox msg ,16,"Error message"
    End Function
Note Icon After changing the action for a cell on the Error Alert tab page and closing the dialog with OK, you must first select another cell before the change takes effect.

Using Scenarios

A Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets scenario is a set of cell values that can be used within your calculations. You assign a name to every scenario on your sheet. Define several scenarios on the same sheet, each with some different values in the cells. Then you can easily switch the sets of cell values by their name and immediately observe the results. Scenarios are a tool to test out "scenario" questions.

Creating Your Own Scenarios

To create a scenario, select all the cells that provide the data for the scenario.

  1. Select the cells that contain the values that will change between scenarios. To select multiple cells, hold down the Ctrl key as you click each cell.

  2. Choose Tools - Scenarios. The Create Scenario dialog appears.

  3. Enter a name for the new scenario and leave the other fields unchanged with their default values. Close the dialog with OK. Your new scenario is automatically activated.

Using Scenarios

Scenarios can be selected in the Navigator:

  1. Press F5 to open the Navigator.

  2. Click the Scenarios icon Scenarios icon in the Navigator.

In the Navigator, you see the defined scenarios with the comments that were entered when the scenarios were created.

  • Double-click a scenario name in the Navigator to apply that scenario to the current sheet.

  • To delete a scenario, right-click the name in the Navigator and choose Delete.

  • To edit a scenario, right-click the name in the Navigator and choose Properties.

  • To hide the border of a set of cells that are part of a scenario, open the Properties dialog for each scenario that affects the cells and clear the Display border checkbox. Hiding the border also removes the listbox on the sheet where you can choose the scenarios.

Note Icon If you want to know which values in the scenario affect other values, choose Tools - Detective - Trace Dependents. You see arrows to the cells that are directly dependent on the current cell.

Printing spreadsheets

You can print spreadsheets in IBM Lotus Symphony. This section provides you with some instructions.

Defining Print Ranges on a Sheet

You can define which range of cells on a spreadsheet to print.

The cells on the sheet that are not part of the defined print range are not printed or exported.

To Define a Print Range

  1. Select the cells that you want to print.

  2. Choose File > Print Ranges > Define.

To Add Cells to a Print Range

  1. Select the cells that you want to add to the existing print range.

  2. Choose File > Print Ranges > Add.

To Clear a Print Range

  • Choose File > Print Ranges > Remove.

Using the Page Break Preview to Edit Print Ranges

In the Page Break Preview, print ranges as well as page break regions are outlined by a blue border and contain a centered page number in gray. Nonprinting areas have a gray background.

To define a new page break region, drag the border to a new location. When you define a new page break region, an automatic page break is replaced by a manual page break.

To View and Edit Print Ranges

  1. Choose View - Page Break Preview.

    Tip Icon To change the default zoom factor of the Page Break Preview, double click the percentage value on the Status bar, and select a new zoom factor.
  2. Edit the print range.

    To change the size of a print range, drag a border of the range to a new location.

    Note Icon To delete a manual page break that is contained in a print range, drag the border of the page break outside of the print range.

    To clear a print range, drag a border of the range onto the opposite border of the range.

  3. To exit the Page Break Preview, choose View - Normal.

Defining Background Colors or Background Graphics in spreadsheets

You can define a background color or use a graphic as a background for cell ranges in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Applying a Background Color to a Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets Spreadsheet

  1. Select the cells.

  2. Choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties (or Text and Cell Properties from the context menu).

  3. On the Background tab page, select the background color.

Graphics in the Background of Cells

  1. Choose Create - Graphic from File.

  2. Select the graphic and click Open.

    The graphic is inserted anchored to the current cell. You can move and scale the graphic as you want. In your context menu you can use the Arrange - To Background command to place this in the background. To select a graphic that has been placed in the background, use the Navigator.

Opening and Saving Text CSV Files

Comma Separated Values (CSV) is text file format that you can use to exchange data from a spreadsheet between applications. Each line in a Text CSV file represents a row in a spreadsheet. Each cell in a spreadsheet row is usually separated by a comma. However, you can use other characters to delimit a field, such as a tabulator character.

If the content of a field or cell contains a comma, the contents of the field or cell must be enclosed by single quotes (') or double quotes (").

To Open a Text CSV File in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

  1. Choose File - Open.

  2. Locate the CSV file that you want to open.

    If the file has a *.csv extension, select the file.

    If the CSV file has another extension, select the file, and then select "Text CSV" in the File type box

  3. Click Open.

    The Text Import dialog opens.

  4. Specify the options to divide the text in the file into columns.

    You can preview the layout of the imported data at the bottom of the Text Import dialog.

    Right-click a column in the preview to set the format or to hide the column.

    Tip Icon If the CSV file uses a text delimiter character that is not listed in the Text delimiter box, click in the box, and type the character.
  5. Click OK.

To Save a Sheet as a Text CSV File

Note Icon When you export a spreadsheet to CSV format, only the data on the current sheet is saved. All other information, including formulas and formatting, is lost.
  1. Open the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets sheet that you want to save as a Text CSV file.

    Note Icon Only the current sheet can be exported.
  2. Choose File - Save as.

  3. In the File name box, enter a name for the file.

  4. In the File type box, select "Text CSV".

  5. (Optional) Set the field options for the Text CSV file.

    Select Edit filter settings.

    In the Export of text files dialog, select the options that you want.

    Click OK.

  6. Click Save.

Importing and Exporting CSV Text Files with Formulas

Comma separated values (CSV) files are text files that contain the cell contents of a single sheet. Commas, semicolons, or other characters can be used as the field delimiters between the cells. Text strings are put in quotation marks, numbers are written without quotation marks.

Importing a CSV File

  1. Choose File - Open.

  2. In the File type field, select the format "Text CSV". Select the file and click Open. When a file has the .csv extension, the file type is automatically recognized.

  3. You will see the Import text files dialog. Click OK.

Tip Icon If the csv file contains formulas, but you want to import the results of those formulas, then choose File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - View and clear the Formulas check box.

Exporting Formulas and Values as CSV Files

  1. Click the sheet to be written as a csv file.

  2. If you want to export the formulas as formulas, for example, in the form =SUM(A1:B5), proceed as follows:

    Choose File - Preferences - Symphony - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - View.

    Under Display, mark the Formulas check box. Click OK.

    If you want to export the calculation results instead of the formulas, do not mark Formulas.

  3. Choose File - Save as. You will see the Save as dialog.

  4. In the File type field select the format "Text CSV".

  5. Enter a name and click Save.

  6. From the Export of text files dialog that appears, select the character set and the field and text delimiters for the data to be exported, and confirm with OK.

    Caution: If the numbers use commas as decimal separators or thousands separators, do not select the comma as the field delimiter. If the text contains double quotation marks, you must select the single quotation mark as separator.

  7. If necessary, after you have saved, clear the Formulas check box to see the calculated results in the table again.

Saving Spreadsheets in other formats

  1. Choose File - Save as. You will see the Save as dialog.

  2. In the Save as type or File type list box, select the desired format.

  3. Enter a name in the File name box and click Save.

If you want the file dialogs to offer another file format as default, select that format in File - Preferences - Symphony - Load and Save - General in the Standard file format area.

Saving documents in other formats

  1. Choose File - Save as. You will see the Save as dialog.

  2. In the Save as type or File type list box, select the desired format.

  3. Enter a name in the File name box and click Save.

If you want the file dialogs to offer another file format as default, select that format in File - Preferences - Symphony - Load and Save - General in the Standard file format area.

Common formatting methods in spreadsheets

This section describes the methods of formatting text, numbers, cells, rows, columns and instant corrections in a spreadsheet.

Formatting a spreadsheet

Formatting Text in a Spreadsheet

  1. Select the text you want to format.

  2. Choose the desired text attributes from the Toolbar. You can also choose Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties. The Text and Cell Properties window will appear in which you can choose various text attributes on the Font and Effects tab page.

Formatting Numbers in a Spreadsheet

  1. Select the cells containing the numbers you want to format.

  2. To format numbers in the default numbering format, use the icons on the Toolbar. You can also choose Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties to open the Text and Cell Properties window. You can choose from the preset formats or define your own on the Numbers tab page.

Formatting Borders and Backgrounds for Cells

  1. Select the cells that you want to format. For multiple selection, hold down the Ctrl key when clicking.
  2. Choose Layout > Properties > Text and Cell Properties to open the Text and Cell Properties window.
  3. Select the desired attributes on the Borders and Background tab page.

Formatting A Sheet

  1. To apply formatting attributes to an entire sheet, choose Layout > Properties > Page Properties. You can define headers and footers, borders and background, and other page properties in the Page Properties window.

Note Icon An image that you have loaded with Layout - Properties - Page Properties - Background is only visible in print or in the print preview. To display a background image on screen as well, insert the graphic image by choosing Create - Graphic from File and arrange the image behind the cells by choosing Layout - Arrange - To Background. Use the Navigator to select the background image.

Freezing rows or columns as Headers

If you have long rows or columns of data that require scrolling, you can lock a row or column as a heading to display as you scroll through the rest of the data.

  1. Select the row below or the column to the right of the row or column that you want to freeze.
    • To freeze horizontally, select the row below the row that you want to freeze.
    • To freeze vertically, select the column to the right of the column that you want to freeze.
    • To freeze both horizontally and vertically, select the cell that is below the row and to the right of the column that you want to freeze.
  2. Click View > Freeze Window. To deactivate, click View > Freeze Window again.
Tip: To select a whole row or column, click its number or letter.

Highlighting Negative Numbers

You can format cells with a number format that highlights negative numbers in red. Alternatively, you can define your own number format in which negative numbers are highlighted in other colors.

  1. Select the cells and choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties.

  2. On the Numbers tab, select a number format and mark Negative numbers red check box. Click OK.

The cell number format is defined in two parts. The format for positive numbers and zero is defined in front of the semicolon; after the semicolon the formula for negative numbers is defined. You can change the code (RED) under Format code. For example, instead of "RED," enter "YELLOW". If the new code appears in the list after clicking the Add icon, this is a valid entry.

Cells in Currency Format

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets you can give numbers any currency format. When you click the Currency icon Icon in the toolbar to format a number, the cell is given the default currency format set under File - Preferences - Language Settings - Languages.

Note Icon Exchanging of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets documents can lead to misunderstandings, if your Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document is loaded by a user who uses a different default currency format.

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets you can define that a number that you have formatted as "1,234.50" still remains in euros in another country and does not become dollars.

You can change the currency format in the Format Cells dialog (choose Layout - Properties - Text and Cell Properties - Numbers tab) by two country settings. In the Language combo box select the basic setting for currency symbol, decimal and thousands separators. In the Format list box you can select possible variations from the default format for the language.

  • For example, if the language is set to "Default" and you are using a German locale setting, the currency format will be "1.234,00 €". A point is used before the thousand digits and a comma before the decimal places. If you now select the subordinate currency format "$ English (US)" from the Format list box , you will get the following format: "$ 1.234,00". As you can see, the separators have remained the same. Only the currency symbol has been changed and converted, but the underlying format of the notation remains the same as in the locale setting.

  • If, under Language, you convert the cells to "English (US)", the English-language locale setting is also transferred and the default currency format is now "$ 1,234.00".

Adjusting Instant Correction Formatting

By default, IBM Lotus Symphony automatically corrects many common typing errors and applies formatting while you type. To quickly undo an automatic correction or completion, press Ctrl+Z. To turn off these features completely, In IBM Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, click Tools > Cell Contents > Instant Input, In IBM Lotus Symphony Documents, clickTools > Instant Changes > While Typing.

To adjust a word from the instant corrections list, take the following steps:
  1. Click Tools > Instant Corrections.
  2. Take one of the following actions:
    • To remove a word from the instant corrections list, click the Replace tab. And then select the word pair that you want to remove, and click Delete.
    • To stop replacing quotation marks as you type, click the Custom Quotes tab and clear the Replace check box.
    • To stop capitalizing the first letter of a sentence, click the Options tab and clear the Capitalize first letter of every sentence check box under Instant correct options or Instantly correct while typing.
    • To stop drawing a line after you type three identical special characters and press Enter, click the Options tab and clear the Apply border check box under Instantly correct while typing.

Moving rows and columns by dragging

In spreadsheets, you can move rows and columns by dragging the cell header bar.

To move rows and columns, follow these steps:
  1. Click the header of the rows or columns that you want to move to select them.
  2. Drag the selected rows or columns to the position where you want, and then release the mouse.

Applying Automatic Formatting to a Selected Cell Range

You can use the Instant Formatting feature to quickly apply a format to a sheet or a selected cell range.

To apply an Instant Formatting to a sheet or selected cell range

  1. Select the cells, including the column and row headers, that you want to format.

  2. Choose Layout - Instant Formatting.

  3. To select which properties to include in an Instant Formatting, click More.

  4. Click OK.

    The format is applied to the selected range of cells.

Note Icon If you do not see any change in color of the cell contents, choose View - Value Highlighting.

To define an Instant Formatting for spreadsheets

You can define a new Instant Formatting that is available to all spreadsheets.

  1. Format a sheet.

  2. Choose Edit - Select All.

  3. Choose Layout - Instant Formatting.

  4. Click Add.

  5. In the Name box of the Add Instant Formatting dialog, enter a name for the format.

  6. Click OK.

Consolidating Data

The contents of the cells from several sheets will be combined in one place.

The text in the labels must be identical, so that rows or columns can be accurately matched. If the row or column label does not match any that exist in the target range, it is appended as a new row or column.

The data from the consolidation ranges and target range will be saved when you save the document. If you later open a document in which consolidation has been defined, this data will again be available.

  1. Open the document that contains the cell ranges to be consolidated.
  2. Click Data > Consolidation.
  3. In the Source data range field, select a source cell range to consolidate with other areas.
  4. If the range is not named, click the field next to the Source data area. A blinking text cursor displayed. Type a reference for the first source data range or select the range with the mouse.
  5. Click Add to insert the selected range in the Consolidation ranges field.
  6. Select additional ranges and click Add after each selection.
  7. Specify where you want to display the result by selecting a target range from the Copy results to field.
  8. If the target range is not named, click the field next to Copy results to and enter the reference of the target range. Alternatively, you can select the range using the mouse or position the cursor in the top left cell of the target range.
  9. Select a function from the Function field. The function specifies how the values of the consolidation ranges are linked. The Sum function is the default setting.
  10. Optional: If you prefer to retain links to the source ranges instead of copies, or if you want to consolidate ranges in which the order of rows or columns varies, click the More button in the Consolidation window.
  11. Click OK to consolidate the ranges.
    1. To insert the formulas that generate the results in the target range, click Link to source data. If you link the data, any values modified in the source range are automatically updated in the target range.

      The corresponding cell references in the target range are inserted in consecutive rows, which are automatically ordered and then hidden from view. Only the final result, based on the selected function, is displayed.

    2. If the cells of the source data range are not to be consolidated corresponding to the identical position of the cell in the range, but instead according to a matching row label or column label, click either Row labels or Column labels.

      To consolidate by row labels or column labels, the label must be contained in the selected source ranges.

Pasting Contents in Special Formats

Contents that are stored on the clipboard can be pasted into your document using different formats.

Pasting clipboard contents using a dialog

  1. Choose Edit - Paste special.

  2. Select one of the options and click OK.

If you are in a spreadsheet and the contents of the clipboard are spreadsheet cells, then a different Paste Special dialog appears. Use the Paste Special dialog to copy cells using basic or advanced options.

  • Transpose: swaps the rows and the columns of the cell range to be pasted.

  • Link: pastes the cell range as a link. If the source file changes, the pasted cells change also.

  • The other options are explained in the help, when you call the Paste Special dialog from within Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Rotating Tables (Transposing)

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, there is a way to "rotate" a spreadsheet so that rows become columns and columns become rows.

  1. Select the cell range that you want to transpose.

  2. Choose Edit - Cut.

  3. Click the cell that is to be the top left cell in the result.

  4. Choose Edit - Paste Special.

  5. In the dialog, mark Paste all and Transpose.

    If you now click OK the columns and rows are transposed.

User-Defined Functions

You can apply user-defined functions in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets in the following ways:

  • You can define your own functions using Macros. This method requires a basic knowledge of programming.

  • You can program functions as add-ins. This method requires an advanced knowledge of programming.

Defining A Function Using Macros

  1. Select Tools > Macros > Macros.
  2. Select My Macros - Standard - Module1 from the Macro from field and then click the Edit button. You will now see the Basic IDE.
  3. Enter the function code. In this example, we define a VOL(a; b; c) function that calculates the volume of a rectangular solid with side lengths a, b and c:

    Function VOL(a, b, c) VOL = a*b*c End Function

  4. Close the Basic-IDE window.

    Your function is automatically saved in the default module and is now available. If you apply the function in a Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document that is to be used on another computer, you can copy the function to the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document as described in the next section.

Copying a Function To a Document

In stage 2 of "Defining A Function Using Lotus Symphony Basic", in the Macro dialog you clicked on Edit . As the default, in the Macro from field the My Macros - Standard - Module1 module is selected. The Standard library resides locally in your user directory.

If you want to copy the user-defined function to a Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document:

  1. Select Tools > Macros > Macros.
  2. In the Macro from field select My Macros - Standard - Module1 and click Edit.

  3. In the Basic-IDE, select the source of your user-defined function and copy it to the clipboard.

  4. Close the Basic-IDE.

  5. Select Tools > Macros > Macros.

  6. In the Macro from field select (Name of the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document) - Standard - Module1. Click Edit.

  7. Paste the clipboard contents in the Basic-IDE of the document.

Applying a User-defined Function in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

Once you have defined the function VOL(a; b; c) in the Basic-IDE, you can apply it the same way as the built-in functions of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

  1. Open a Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets document and enter numbers for the function parameters a, b, and c in cells A1, B1, and C1.

  2. Set the cursor in another cell and enter the following:

    =VOL(A1;B1;C1)

  3. The function is evaluated and you will see the result in the selected cell.

19xx/20xx Years

The year in a date entry is often entered as two digits. Internally, the year is managed by Lotus Symphony as four digits, so that in the calculation of the difference from 1/1/99 to 1/1/01, the result will correctly be two years.

  • Under File - Preferences - Symphony - General you can define the century that is used when you enter a year with only two digits. The default is 1930 to 2029.

This means that if you enter a date of 1/1/30 or higher, it will be treated internally as 1/1/1930 or higher. All lower two-digit years apply to the 20xx century. So, for example, 1/1/20 is converted into 1/1/2020.

Applying line styles using the Toolbar

You can select various settings to apply to lines and you can load line style lists and arrow lists with various styles and line ends.

  1. Select the object that you want to apply a new line style to. For example, open the Drawing toolbar and draw a line. After drawing, the line is selected.
  2. Right click and select Line.... Then click the Line tab.
  3. You can select a line style and define the width. In the Color field, you can select the color for a line and arrows.
  4. You can define the ends of a line in Arrow styles field. Select the desired arrow style in Begin style and End style.

References

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, you can reference cells in other sheets and switch between sheets using the sheet tabs.

Referencing Cells from One Sheet to Another

Use the navigator toolbar to reference cells from one sheet to another sheet in the same spreadsheet. The cells can be inserted as copies of cells, as links from cells in the same sheet, or as hyperlinks from cells in another sheet. The range to be inserted must be defined with a name.

  1. Open the spreadsheet that contains the source cells and select them.
  2. Name the source range. Click Create > Names > Define.
  3. Save the file, but do not close it.
  4. Open the target sheet in which you want to link to something.
  5. Click Edit > Navigator.
  6. Expand Range names and select the source object.
  7. Right-click and select Drag Mode. Then select the type of reference that you want: a hyperlink, link, or copy.
  8. Drag the selected source object into the cell of the target sheet where you want to insert the reference.

Navigating Through Sheet Tabs

By default Lotus Symphony displays three sheets "Sheet1" to "Sheet3", in each new spreadsheet. You can switch between sheets in a spreadsheet using the sheet tabs at the bottom of the screen.

Use the navigation buttons to display all the sheets belonging to your document. Clicking the button on the far left or the far right displays, respectively, the first or last sheet tab. The middle buttons allow the user to scroll forward and backward through all sheet tabs. To display the sheet itself click on the sheet tab.

If there is insufficient space to display all the sheet tabs, you can increase it by pointing to the separator between the scrollbar and the sheet tabs, pressing the mouse button and, keeping the mouse button pressed, dragging to the right. In doing so you will be sharing the available space between the sheet tabs and horizontal scrollbar.

Using formulas in calculations

In Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, you can use formulas to complete calculations.

Calculating With Formulas

All formulas begin with an equals sign. The formulas can contain numbers, text, arithmetic operators, logic operators, or functions.

Tip Icon Remember that the basic arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /) can be used in formulas using the "Multiplication and Division before Addition and Subtraction" rule. Instead of writing =SUM(A1:B1) you can write =A1+B1.
Tip Icon Parentheses can also be used. The result of the formula =(1+2)*3 produces a different result than =1+2*3.

Here are a few examples of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets formulas:

Table 6. Examples of formulas
Formula Result
=A1+10 Displays the contents of cell A1 plus 10.
=A1*16% Displays 16% of the contents of A1.
=A1 * A2 Displays the result of the multiplication of A1 and A2.
=ROUND(A1;1) Displays the contents of cell A1 rounded to one decimal place.
=EFFECTIVE(5%;12) Calculates the effective interest for 5% annual nominal interest with 12 payments a year.
=B8-SUM(B10:B14) Calculates B8 minus the sum of the cells B10 to B14.
=SUM(B8;SUM(B10:B14)) Calculates the sum of cells B10 to B14 and adds the value to B8.
=SUM(B1:B65536) Sums all numbers in column B.

It is also possible to nest functions in formulas, as shown in the example. You can also nest functions within functions. The Function Wizard assists you with nested functions.

Note: Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets can assist users by giving formula hot hints.

Protecting content in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

You can protect sheets or cells in a spreadsheet. This section provides you with some instructions.

Protecting Cells from Changes

You can protect cells from changes by setting cell protection. Cell protection is activated for all cells as the default and it is only effective after you protect the sheet or the document.

You can click Tools > Protect Document to protect the sheet or the document. The protection becomes active when you close the dialog with OK, even if you do not specify a password. If you enter a password and then later forget it, you will have no way to deactivate the protection. If you merely want to protect the cells from inadvertent changes, it is better not to enter a password.

Unprotecting Cells

  1. Click the sheet for which you want to cancel the protection.

  2. Select Tools - Protect Document, then choose Sheet or Document to remove the check mark indicating the protected status.

  3. If you have assigned a password, enter it in this dialog and click OK.

The cells can now be edited, the formulas can be viewed, and all cells can be printed until you reactivate the protection for the sheet or document.

Using function types and operators in spreadsheets

This section describes the basic usage of the function types and operators in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Function Wizard

Opens the Function, which helps you to interactively create formulas.

Before you start the Wizard, select a cell or a range of cells from the current sheet, in order to determine the position at which the formula will be inserted.

To access this command...

Choose Create - Function

Ctrl+F2

On Formula Input Line, click

Icon Function
Note Icon You can download the complete ODFF (OpenDocument Format Formula) specification from the OASIS web site.

The Function has two tabs: Functions is used to create formulas, and Structure is used to check the formula build.

Category

Lists all the categories to which the different functions are assigned. Select a category to view the appropriate functions in the list field below.

Select "All" to view all functions in alphabetical order, irrespective of category. "Last Used" lists the functions you have most recently used.

Function

Displays the functions found under the selected category. Double-click to select a function. A single-click displays a short function description.

Array

Specifies that the selected function is inserted into the selected cell range as an array formula. Array formulas operate on multiple cells. Each cell in the array contains the formula, not as a copy but as a common formula shared by all matrix cells.

The Array option is identical to the Ctrl+Shift+Enter command, which is used to enter and confirm formulas in the sheet. The formula is inserted as a matrix formula indicated by two braces { }.

Note Icon The maximum size of an array range is 128 by 128 cells.

Argument Input Fields

When you double-click a function, the argument input field(s) appear on the right side of the dialog. To select a cell reference as an argument, click directly into the cell, or drag across the required range on the sheet while holding down the mouse button. You can also enter numerical and other values or references directly into the corresponding fields in the dialog. When using date entries, make sure you use the correct format. Click OK to insert the result into the spreadsheet.

Shrink / Maximize

Click the Shrink icon to reduce the dialog to the size of the input field. It is then easier to mark the required reference in the sheet. The icons then automatically convert to the Maximize icon. Click it to restore the dialog to its original size.

The dialog is automatically minimized when you click into a sheet with the mouse. As soon as you release the mouse button, the dialog is restored and the reference range defined with the mouse is highlighted in the document by a blue frame.

{ENTER ALTERNATE DESCRIPTION HERE} Shrink
{ENTER ALTERNATE DESCRIPTION HERE} Maximize

Function Result

As soon you enter arguments in the function, the result is calculated. This preview informs you if the calculation can be carried out with the arguments given. If the arguments result in an error, the corresponding error code is displayed.

The required arguments are indicated by names in bold print.

f(x) (depending on the selected function)

Allows you to access a subordinate level of the Function in order to nest another function within the function, instead of a value or reference.

Argument/Parameter/Cell Reference (depending on the selected function)

The number of visible text fields depends on the function. Enter arguments either directly into the argument fields or by clicking a cell in the table.

Result

Displays the calculation result or an error message.

Formula

Displays the created formula. Type your entries directly, or create the formula using the wizard.

Back

Moves the focus back through the formula components, marking them as it does so.

Tip Icon To select a single function from a complex formula consisting of several functions, double-click the function in the formula window.

Next

Moves forward through the formula components in the formula window. This button can also be used to assign functions to the formula. If you select a function and click the Next button, the selection appears in the formula window.

Tip Icon Double-click a function in the selection window to transfer it to the formula window.

Cancel

Closes the dialog without implementing the formula.

OK

Ends the Function, and transfers the formula to the selected cells.

List of Categories and Functions

Structure tab

On this page, you can view the structure of the function.

Note Icon If you start the Function while the cell cursor is positioned in a cell that already contains a function, the Structure tab is opened and shows the composition of the current formula.

Structure

Displays a hierarchical representation of the current function. You can hide or show the arguments by a click on the plus or minus sign in front.

Note Icon Blue dots denote correctly entered arguments. Red dots indicate incorrect data types. For example: if the SUM function has one argument entered as text, this is highlighted in red as SUM only permits number entries.

Functions by Category

This section describes the functions of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets. The various functions are divided into categories in the Function Wizard.

Date & Time

These spreadsheet functions are used for inserting and editing dates and times.

Financial

This category contains the mathematical finance functions of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Information

This category contains the Information functions.

Logical

This category contains the Logical functions.

Mathematical

This category contains the Mathematical functions for Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Array

This category contains the array functions.

Statistical

This category contains the Statistics functions.

Spreadsheet

This section contains descriptions of the Spreadsheet functions together with an example.

Text

This section contains descriptions of the Text functions.

Add-in

The following describes and lists some of the available add-in functions.

Operators are also available.

Date and Time Functions

These spreadsheet functions are used for inserting and editing dates and times. The functions are: DATE, DATEVALUE, DAY, DAYS, DAYS360, EASTERSUNDAY, EDATE, EOMONTH, HOUR, MINUTE, MONTH, NETWORKDAYS, NOW, SECOND, TIME, TIMEVALUE, TODAY, WEEKDAY, WEEKNUM, WEEKNUM_ADD, WORKDAY, YEAR, YEAR2, YEARFRAC.

Note Icon IBM Lotus Symphony internally handles a date/time value as a numerical value. If you assign the numbering format "Number" to a date or time value, it is converted to a number. For example, 01/01/2000 12:00 PM, converts to 36526.5. The value preceding the decimal point corresponds to the date; the value following the decimal point corresponds to the time. If you do not want to see this type of numerical date or time representation, change the number format (date or time) accordingly. To do this, select the cell containing the date or time value, call its context menu and select Cells . The Numbers tab page contains the functions for defining the number format.
Note Icon When entering dates, slashes or dashes used as date separators may be interpreted as arithmetic operators. Therefore, dates entered in this format are not always recognized as dates and result in erroneous calculations. To keep dates from being interpreted as parts of formulas, place them in quotation marks, for example, "07/20/54".

WORKDAY

The result is a date number that can be formatted as a date. You then see the date of a day that is a certain number of Workdays away from the Start date .

Syntax

WORKDAY (Start date;Days;Holidays)

Start date : the date from when the calculation is carried out. If the start date is a workday, the day is included in the calculation.

Days : the number of workdays. Positive value for a result after the start date, negative value for a result before the start date.

Holidays : list of optional holidays. These are non-working days. Enter a cell range in which the holidays are listed individually.

Example

What date comes 17 workdays after 1 December 2001? Enter the start date "12/1/2001" in C3 and the number of workdays in D3. Cells F3 to J3 contain the following Christmas and New Year holidays: "12/24/2001", "12/25/2001", "12/26/2001", "12/31/2001", "1/1/2002".

=WORKDAY(C3;D3;F3;J3) returns 12/28/2001. Format the serial date number as a date.

YEARFRAC

The result is a number between 0 and 1, representing the fraction of a year between Start date and End date .

Syntax

YEARFRAC (Start date;End date;Basis)

Start date and end date : two date values.

Basis : is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

What fraction of the year 2001 lies between 1.1.2002 and 7.1.2001?

=YEARFRAC("1.1.2002"; "7.1.2002";1) returns 0.495890.

DATE

This function converts a date written as year, month, day to an internal serial number and displays it in the cell's formatting. The default format of a cell containing the DATE function is the date format, but you can format the cells with the 0 number format, which displays the internal serial number of the date as a number.

Syntax

DATE(year; month; day)

Year is an integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99.

Month is an integer between 1 and 12 indicating the month.

Day is a number between 1 and 31 indicating the day of the month.

If the values for month and day are higher, they are carried over to the next digit. If you enter =DATE(00;12;31) the result will be "12/31/00." If, on the other hand, you enter =DATE(00;13;31) the result will be "1/31/01."

You can enter dates directly into the DATE function either as arguments, or range references.

Example

DATE("00;1;1") yields 1/1/00

See also the following functions:

DATEVALUE, TODAY, YEAR, NOW, MONTH, DAY, TIMEVALUE.

DATEVALUE

DATEVALUE returns the internal date number for text in quotes having a possible date format.

The internal number is returned as a natural number, resulting from the dates system used by IBM Lotus Symphony to calculate dates.

Syntax

DATEVALUE("Text")

Text is a valid date expression and must be entered with quotation marks.

Example

DATEVALUE("7/20/54") yields 19925

See also the following functions:

TODAY, NOW, TIMEVALUE.

EDATE

The result is a date which is a number of Months away from the Start date . Only months are considered; days are not used for calculation.

Syntax

EDATE(Start date;Months)

Start date : a date.

Months : the number of months.

Example

What date is one month prior to 3.31.2001?

=EDATE("3.31.2001";-1) returns 2.28.2001.

TODAY

Returns the current computer system date. The value is updated when you reopen the document or modify the values of the document.

Syntax

TODAY()

Today is a function without arguments.

Example

TODAY() returns the current computer system date.

See also the following functions:

DATE, NOW, DAY.

YEAR

Returns the year as a number according to the internal calculation rules.

Syntax

YEAR(number)

Number shows the internal date value for which the year is to be returned.

Examples

Year(1) returns 1899

YEAR(2) returns 1900

YEAR(33333.33) returns 1991

See also the following functions:

DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, MONTH, NOW, SECOND, TODAY, WEEKDAY.

YEAR2

Extracts the year, an integer from 0 (the year 1900) through 8099 (the year 9999), from date-number.

Syntax

YEAR2(Date-Number;[Type])

Date-number is an integer, or the address or name of a cell that contains an integer, from 1 (January 1, 1900) through 2958465 (December 31, 9999).

Type is the number 0 or 1. If type is 1, YEAR2 returns the year in four-digit form. If type is 0 or omitted, YEAR2 returns the offset of the year from 1900 (for example, YEAR2 returns 123 to represent the year 2023).

NOW

Returns the computer system date and time. The value is updated when you recalculate the document or each time a cell value is modified.

Syntax

NOW()

Example

=NOW()-A1 returns the difference between the date in A1 and now. Format the result as a number.

See also the following functions:

DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, MONTH, WEEKDAY, DATE, YEAR.

WEEKNUM

WEEKNUM calculates the week number of the year for the internal date value.

Syntax

WEEKNUM(number; mode)

Number is the internal date number.

Mode sets the start of the week and the calculation type.

  1 = Sunday
  2 = Monday

Examples

WEEKNUM("1/1/95";1) returns 1 (1/1/95 was a Sunday)

WEEKNUM("1/1/95";2) returns 52. If the week starts on Monday, Sunday belongs to the last week of the previous year.

WEEKNUM_ADD

The result indicates the number of the calendar week for a Date .

Syntax

WEEKNUM_ADD(Date;Return type)

Date : the date within the calendar week.

Return type : 1 for week beginning on a Sunday, 2 for week beginning on a Monday.

Example

In which week number does 12.24.2001 fall?

=WEEKNUM_ADD("24.12.2001";1) returns 52.

MINUTE

Calculates the minute for an internal time value. The minute is returned as a number between 0 and 59.

Syntax

MINUTE(number)

Number , as a time value, is a decimal number where the number of the minute is to be returned.

Examples

MINUTE(8.999) returns 58

MINUTE(8.9999) returns 59

MINUTE(NOW()) returns the current minute value.

See also the following functions:

DAY, HOUR, MONTH, NOW, SECOND, WEEKDAY, YEAR.

MONTH

Returns the month for the given date value. The month is returned as an integer between 1 and 12.

Syntax

MONTH(Number)

Number , as a time value, is a decimal for which the month is to be returned.

Examples

MONTH(NOW()) returns the current month

MONTH(C4) returns 7 if contents of C4 = 7/7/00.

See also the following functions:

DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, NOW, WEEKDAY, YEAR.

EOMONTH

Returns the date of the last day of a month which falls Months away from the Start date .

Syntax

EOMONTH (Start date; Months)

Start date : calculated from this point onwards.

Months : the number of months before (negative) or after (positive) the Start Date.

Example

What is the last day of the month that falls 6 months after September 14 2001?

=EOMONTH("9.14.2001";6) returns 3.31.2002.

NETWORKDAYS

Returns the number of workdays between Start date and End date . Holidays can be deducted.

Syntax

NETWORKDAYS (Start date;End date;Holidays)

Start date : the date from when the calculation is carried out. If the start date is a workday, the day is included in the calculation.

End date : the date up until when the calculation is carried out. If the end date is a workday, the day is included in the calculation.

Holidays : optional list of holidays. These are non-working days. Enter a cell range in which the holidays are listed individually.

Example

How many workdays fall between 12/15/2001 and 1/15/2002? The start date is located in C3 and the end date in D3. Cells F3 to J3 contain the following Christmas and New Year holidays: "12/24/2001", "12/25/2001", "12/26/2001", "12/31/2001", "1/1/2002".

=NETWORKDAYS(C3;D3;F3:J3) returns 17 workdays.

EASTERSUNDAY

Returns the date of Easter Sunday for the entered year. Year is an integer between 1583 and 9956 or 0 and 99. You can also calculate other holidays by simple addition with this date.

Easter Monday = EASTERSUNDAY() + 1

Good Friday = EASTERSUNDAY() - 2

Pentecost Sunday = EASTERSUNDAY() + 49

Pentecost Monday = EASTERSUNDAY() + 50

Examples

EASTERSUNDAY(2000) returns 4/23/00

EASTERSUNDAY(2000)+49 returns the internal serial number 36688. If you use the MMDDYY date format, the result is 06/11/00.

SECOND

Returns the second for the given time value. The second is given as an integer between 0 and 59.

Syntax

SECOND(Number)

Number , as a time value, is a decimal, for which the second is to be returned.

Examples

SECOND(NOW()) returns the current second

SECOND(C4) returns 17 if contents of C4 = 12:20:17.

See also the following functions:

DATE, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, MONTH, , NOW, WEEKDAY, YEAR.

HOUR

Returns the hour for a given time value. The hour is returned as an integer between 0 and 23.

Syntax

HOUR(Number)

Number , as a time value, is a decimal, for which the hour is to be returned.

Examples

HOUR(NOW()) returns the current hour

HOUR(C4) returns 17 if the contents of C4 = 17:20:00.

See also the following functions:

DAY, MINUTE, MONTH, NOW, WEEKDAY, YEAR.

DAY

Returns the day of given date value. The day is returned as an integer between 1 and 31. You can also enter a negative date/time value.

Syntax

DAY(Number)

Number , as a time value, is a decimal, for which the day is to be returned.

Examples

DAY(1) returns 31 (since Lotus Symphony starts counting at zero from December 30, 1899)

DAY(NOW()) returns the current day.

DAY(C4) returns 5 if the contents of C4 = 8/5/1901.

See also the following functions:

HOUR, MINUTE, MONTH, NOW, SECOND, TODAY, WEEKDAY, YEAR.

DAYS

Calculates the difference between two date values. The result is an integer and returns the number of days between the two days.

Syntax

DAYS(Date_2;Date_1)

Date_1 is the start date, Date_2 is the end date. If Date_2 is an earlier date than Date_1 the result is a negative number.

Examples

DAYS("1/1/2010"; NOW()) returns the number of days from today until January 1, 2010.

DAYS("10/10/1990";"10/10/1980") returns 3652.

DAYS360

Returns the difference between two dates based on the 360 day year used in interest calculations. The result is an integer.

Syntax

DAYS360(Date_1;Date_2;Type)

If Date_2 is earlier than Date_1, the function will return a negative number.

The optional argument Type determines the type of difference calculation. If Type = 0 or if the argument is missing, the US method (NASD, National Association of Securities Dealers) is used. If Type <> 0, the European method is used.

Examples

DAYS360("1/1/2000";NOW()) returns the number of interest days from January 1, 2000 until today.

See also the following functions:

DAY

WEEKDAY

Returns the day of the week for the given date value. The day is returned as an integer between 1 (Sunday) and 7 (Saturday) if no type or type = 1 is specified. If type=2, numbering begins at Monday=1; and if type=3 numbering begins at Monday=0.

Syntax

WEEKDAY(Number; Type)

Number , as a date value, is a decimal for which the weekday is to be returned.

Type determines the type of calculation. For Type =1, the weekdays are counted starting from Sunday (this is the default even when the Type parameter is missing). For Type =2, the weekdays are counted starting from Monday =1. For Type = 3, the weekdays are counted starting from Monday = 0.

Examples

WEEKDAY("6/14/2000") returns 4 (the Type parameter is missing, therefore the standard count is used. The standard count starts with Sunday as day number 1. June 14, 2000 was a Wednesday and therefore day number 4).

WEEKDAY("7/24/1996";2) returns 3 (the Type parameter is 2, therefore Monday is day number 1. July 24, 1996 was a Wednesday and therefore day number 3).

WEEKDAY("7/24/1996";1) returns 4 (the Type parameter is 1, therefore Sunday is day number 1. July 24, 1996 was a Wednesday and therefore day number 4).

WEEKDAY(NOW()) returns the number of the current day.

To obtain a function indicating whether a day in A1 is a Business day, use the IF and WEEKDAY functions as follows: IF(WEEKDAY(A1;2)<6;"Business day";"Weekend")

See also the following functions:

DAY, NOW, TODAY.

TIME

TIME returns the current time value from values for hours, minutes and seconds. This function can be used to convert a time based on these three elements to a decimal time value.

Syntax

TIME(hour; minute; second)

Use an integer to set the hour .

Use an integer to set the minute .

Use an integer to set the second .

Examples

TIME("0;0;0") returns 00:00:00

TIME("4;20;4") returns 04:20:04

See also the following functions:

HOUR, MINUTE, NOW, SECOND.

TIMEVALUE

TIMEVALUE returns the internal time number from a text enclosed by quotes and which may show a possible time entry format.

The internal number indicated as a decimal is the result of the date system used under Lotus Symphony to calculate date entries.

Syntax

TIMEVALUE("Text")

Text is a valid time expression and must be entered in quotation marks.

Examples

TIMEVALUE("4PM") returns 0.67. When formatting in time format HH:MM:SS, you then get 16:00:00.

TIMEVALUE("24:00") returns 1. If you use the HH:MM:SS time format, the value is 00:00:00.

See also the following functions:

DATEVALUE, HOUR, MINUTE, NOW, SECOND, TIME .

Financial Functions Part One

This category contains the mathematical finance functions of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

AMORDEGRC

Calculates the amount of depreciation for a settlement period as degressive amortization. Unlike AMORLINC, a depreciation coefficient that is independent of the depreciable life is used here.

Syntax

AMORDEGRC(Cost; DatePurchased; FirstPeriod; Salvage; Period; Rate; Basis)

Cost is the acquisition costs.

DatePurchased is the date of acquisition.

FirstPeriod is the end date of the first settlement period.

Salvage is the salvage value of the capital asset at the end of the depreciable life.

Period is the settlement period to be considered.

Rate is the rate of depreciation.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 7. Calculation options in AMORDEGRC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

AMORLINC

Calculates the amount of depreciation for a settlement period as linear amortization. If the capital asset is purchased during the settlement period, the proportional amount of depreciation is considered.

Syntax

AMORLINC(Cost; DatePurchased; FirstPeriod; Salvage; Period; Rate; Basis)

Cost means the acquisition costs.

DatePurchased is the date of acquisition.

FirstPeriod is the end date of the first settlement period.

Salvage is the salvage value of the capital asset at the end of the depreciable life.

Period is the settlement period to be considered.

Rate is the rate of depreciation.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 8. Calculation options in AMORLINC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

ACCRINT

Calculates the accrued interest of a security in the case of periodic payments.

Syntax

ACCRINT(Issue; FirstInterest; Settlement; Rate; Par; Frequency; Basis)

Issue is the issue date of the security.

FirstInterest is the first interest date of the security.

Settlement is the date at which the interest accrued up until then is to be calculated.

Rate is the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate)

Par is the par value of the security.

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 9. Calculation options in ACCRINT function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is issued on 2.28.2001. First interest is set for 8.31.2001. The settlement date is 5.1.2001. The Rate is 0.1 or 10% and Par is 1000 currency units. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). The basis is the US method (0). How much interest has accrued?

=ACCRINT("2.28.2001";"8.31.2001";"5.1.2001";0.1;1000;2;0) returns 16.94444.

ACCRINTM

Calculates the accrued interest of a security in the case of one-off payment at the settlement date.

Syntax

ACCRINTM(Issue; Settlement; Rate; Par; Basis)

Issue is the issue date of the security.

Settlement is the date at which the interest accrued up until then is to be calculated.

Rate is the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate).

Par is the par value of the security.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 10. Calculation options in ACCRINTM function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is issued on 4.1.2001. The maturity date is set for 6.15.2001. The Rate is 0.1 or 10% and Par is 1000 currency units. The basis of the daily/annual calculation is the daily balance (3). How much interest has accrued?

=ACCRINTM("4.1.2001";"6.15.2001";0.1;1000;3) returns 20.54795.

RECEIVED

Calculates the amount received that is paid for a fixed-interest security at a given point in time.

Syntax

RECEIVED("Settlement"; "Maturity"; Investment; Discount; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Investment is the purchase sum.

Discount is the percentage discount on acquisition of the security.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 11. Calculation options in RECEIVED function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

Settlement date: February 15 1999, maturity date: May 15 1999, investment sum: 1000 currency units, discount: 5.75 per cent, basis: Daily balance/360 = 2.

The amount received on the maturity date is calculated as follows:

=RECEIVED("2.15.99";"5.15.99";1000;0.0575;2) returns 1014.420266.

PV

Returns the present value of an investment resulting from a series of regular payments.

Use this function to calculate the amount of money needed to be invested at a fixed rate today, to receive a specific amount, an annuity, over a specified number of periods. You can also determine how much money is to remain after the elapse of the period. Specify as well if the amount is to be paid out at the beginning or at the end of each period.

Enter these values either as numbers, expressions or references. If, for example, interest is paid annually at 8%, but you want to use month as your period, enter 8%/12 under Rate and Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets with automatically calculate the correct factor.

Syntax

PV(Rate; NPer; Pmt; FV; Type)

Rate defines the interest rate per period.

NPer is the total number of periods (payment period).

Pmt is the regular payment made per period.

FV (optional) defines the future value remaining after the final installment has been made.

Type (optional) denotes due date for payments. Type = 1 means due at the beginning of a period and Type = 0 (default) means due at the end of the period.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

What is the present value of an investment, if 500 currency units are paid out monthly and the annual interest rate is 8%? The payment period is 48 months and 20,000 currency units are to remain at the end of the payment period.

=PV(8%/12;48;500;20000) = -35,019.37 currency units. Under the named conditions, you must deposit 35,019.37 currency units today, if you want to receive 500 currency units per month for 48 months and have 20,000 currency units left over at the end. Cross-checking shows that 48 x 500 currency units + 20,000 currency units = 44,000 currency units. The difference between this amount and the 35,000 currency units deposited represents the interest paid.

If you enter references instead of these values into the formula, you can calculate any number of "If-then" scenarios. Please note: references to constants must be defined as absolute references. Examples of this type of application are found under the depreciation functions.

SYD

Returns the arithmetic-declining depreciation rate.

Use this function to calculate the depreciation amount for one period of the total depreciation span of an object. Arithmetic declining depreciation reduces the depreciation amount from period to period by a fixed sum.

Syntax

SYD(Cost; Salvage; Life; Period)

Cost is the initial cost of an asset.

Salvage is the value of an asset after depreciation.

Life is the period fixing the time span over which an asset is depreciated.

Period defines the period for which the depreciation is to be calculated.

Example

A video system initially costing 50,000 currency units is to be depreciated annually for the next 5 years. The salvage value is to be 10,000 currency units. You want to calculate depreciation for the first year.

=SYD(50000;10000;5;1)=13,333.33 currency units. The depreciation amount for the first year is 13,333.33 currency units.

To have an overview of depreciation rates per period, it is best to define a depreciation table. By entering the different depreciation formulas available in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets next to each other, you can see which depreciation form is the most appropriate. Enter the table as follows:

Table 12. Depreciation table
  A B C D E
1 Initial Cost Salvage Value Useful Life Time Period Deprec. SYD
2 50,000 currency units 10,000 currency units 5 1 13,333.33 currency units
3       2 10,666.67 currency units
4       3 8,000.00 currency units
5       4 5,333.33 currency units
6       5 2,666.67 currency units
7       6 0.00 currency units
8       7  
9       8  
10       9  
11       10  
12        
13 >0     Total 40,000.00 currency units

The formula in E2 is as follows:

=SYD($A$2;$B$2;$C$2;D2)

This formula is duplicated in column E down to E11 (select E2, then drag down the lower right corner with the mouse).

Cell E13 contains the formula used to check the total of the depreciation amounts. It uses the SUMIF function as the negative values in E8:E11 must not be considered. The condition >0 is contained in cell A13. The formula in E13 is as follows:

=SUMIF(E2:E11;A13)

Now view the depreciation for a 10 year period, or at a salvage value of 1 currency unit, or enter a different initial cost, and so on.

DISC

Calculates the allowance (discount) of a security as a percentage.

Syntax

DISC("Settlement"; "Maturity"; Price; Redemption; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Price is the price of the security per 100 currency units of par value.

Redemption is the redemption value of the security per 100 currency units of par value.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 13. Calculation options in DISC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1.25.2001; the maturity date is 11.15.2001. The price (purchase price) is 97, the redemption value is 100. Using daily balance calculation (basis 3) how high is the settlement (discount)?

=DISC("1.25.2001";"11.15.2001";97;100;3) returns 0.03840 or 3.84 per cent.

DURATION_ADD

Calculates the duration of a fixed interest security in years.

Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

DURATION_ADD("Settlement"; "Maturity"; Coupon; Yield; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Coupon is the annual coupon interest rate (nominal rate of interest)

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 14. Calculation options in DURATION_ADD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1.1.2001; the maturity date is 1.1.2006. The Coupon rate of interest is 8%. The yield is 9.0%. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how long is the duration?

=DURATION_ADD("1.1.2001";"1.1.2006";0.08;0.09;2;3)

EFFECTIVE

Returns the net annual interest rate for a nominal interest rate.

Nominal interest refers to the amount of interest due at the end of a calculation period. Effective interest increases with the number of payments made. In other words, interest is often paid in installments (for example, monthly or quarterly) before the end of the calculation period.

Syntax

EFFECTIVE(Nom; P)

Nom is the nominal interest.

P is the number of interest payment periods per year.

Example

If the annual nominal interest rate is 9.75% and four interest calculation periods are defined, what is the actual interest rate (effective rate)?

=EFFECTIVE(9.75%;4) = 10.11% The annual effective rate is therefore 10.11%.

EFFECT_ADD

Calculates the effective annual rate of interest on the basis of the nominal interest rate and the number of interest payments per annum.

Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

EFFECT_ADD(NominalRate; NPerY)

NominalRate is the annual nominal rate of interest.

NPerY is the number of interest payments per year.

Example

What is the effective annual rate of interest for a 5.25% nominal rate and quarterly payment.

=EFFECT_ADD(0.0525;4) returns 0.053543 or 5.3534%.

DDB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the arithmetic-declining method.

Use this form of depreciation if you require a higher initial depreciation value as opposed to linear depreciation. The depreciation value gets less with each period and is usually used for assets whose value loss is higher shortly after purchase (for example, vehicles, computers). Please note that the book value will never reach zero under this calculation type.

Syntax

DDB(Cost; Salvage; Life; Period; Factor)

Cost fixes the initial cost of an asset.

Salvage fixes the value of an asset at the end of its life.

Life is the number of periods defining how long the asset is to be used.

Period defines the length of the period. The length must be entered in the same time unit as life.

Factor (optional) is the factor by which depreciation decreases. If a value is not entered, the default is factor 2.

Example

A computer system with an initial cost of 75,000 currency units is to be depreciated monthly over 5 years. The value at the end of the depreciation is to be 1 currency unit. The factor is 2.

=DDB(75000;1;60;12;2) = 1,721.81 currency units. Therefore, the double-declining depreciation during the first month after purchase is 1,721.81 currency units.

DB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method.

This form of depreciation is used if you want to get a higher depreciation value at the beginning of the depreciation (as opposed to linear depreciation). The depreciation value is reduced with every depreciation period by the depreciation already deducted from the initial cost.

Syntax

DB(Cost; Salvage; Life; Period; Month)

Cost is the initial cost of an asset.

Salvage is the value of an asset at the end of the depreciation.

Life defines the period over which an asset is depreciated.

Period is the length of each period. The length must be entered in the same date unit as the depreciation period.

Month (optional) denotes the number of months for the first year of depreciation. If an entry is not defined, 12 is used as the default.

Example

A computer system with an initial cost of 25,000 currency units is to be depreciated over a three year period. The salvage value is to be 1,000 currency units. One period is 30 days.

=DB(25000;1000;36;1;6) = 1,075.00 currency units

The fixed-declining depreciation of the computer system is 1,075.00 currency units.

IRR

Calculates the internal rate of return for an investment. The values represent cash flow values at regular intervals, at least one value must be negative (payments), and at least one value must be positive (income).

Syntax

IRR(Values; Guess)

Values represents an array containing the values.

Guess (optional) is the estimated value. An iterative method is used to calculate the internal rate of return. If you can provide only few values, you should provide an initial guess to enable the iteration.

Example

Under the assumption that cell contents are A1= -10000, A2= 3500, A3= 7600 and A4= 1000, the formula =IRR(A1:A4) gives a result of 80.24%.

ISPMT

Calculates the level of interest for unchanged amortization installments.

Syntax

ISPMT(Rate; Period; TotalPeriods; Invest)

Rate sets the periodic interest rate.

Period is the number of installments for calculation of interest.

TotalPeriods is the total number of installment periods.

Invest is the amount of the investment.

Example

For a credit amount of 120,000 currency units with a two-year term and monthly installments, at a yearly interest rate of 12% the level of interest after 1.5 years is required.

=ISPMT(1%;18;24;120000) = -300 currency units. The monthly interest after 1.5 years amounts to 300 currency units.

Financial Functions Part Two

Financial Functions Part Three

Financial Functions Part Two

To access this command...

Create - Function - Category Financial

PPMT

Returns for a given period the payment on the principal for an investment that is based on periodic and constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Syntax

PPMT(Rate; Period; NPer; PV; FV; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

Period is the amortizement period. P = 1 for the first and P = NPer for the last period.

NPer is the total number of periods during which annuity is paid.

PV is the present value in the sequence of payments.

FV (optional) is the desired (future) value.

Type (optional) defines the due date. F = 1 for payment at the beginning of a period and F = 0 for payment at the end of a period.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

How high is the periodic monthly payment at an annual interest rate of 8.75% over a period of 3 years? The cash value is 5,000 currency units and is always paid at the beginning of a period. The future value is 8,000 currency units.

=PPMT(8.75%/12;1;36;5000;8000;1) = -350.99 currency units.

CUMPRINC

Returns the cumulative interest paid for an investment period with a constant interest rate.

Syntax

CUMPRINC(Rate; NPer; PV; S; E; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

NPer is the payment period with the total number of periods. NPER can also be a non-integer value.

PV is the current value in the sequence of payments.

S is the first period.

E is the last period.

Type is the due date of the payment at the beginning or end of each period.

Example

What are the payoff amounts if the yearly interest rate is 5.5% for 36 months? The cash value is 15,000 currency units. The payoff amount is calculated between the 10th and 18th period. The due date is at the end of the period.

=CUMPRINC(5.5%/12;36;15000;10;18;0) = -3669.74 currency units. The payoff amount between the 10th and 18th period is 3669.74 currency units.

CUMPRINC_ADD

Calculates the cumulative redemption of a loan in a period.

Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

CUMPRINC_ADD(Rate; NPer; PV; StartPeriod; EndPeriod; Type)

Rate is the interest rate for each period.

NPer is the total number of payment periods. The rate and NPER must refer to the same unit, and thus both be calculated annually or monthly.

PV is the current value.

StartPeriod is the first payment period for the calculation.

EndPeriod is the last payment period for the calculation.

Type is the maturity of a payment at the end of each period (Type = 0) or at the start of the period (Type = 1).

Example

The following mortgage loan is taken out on a house:

Rate: 9.00 per cent per annum (9% / 12 = 0.0075), Duration: 30 years (payment periods = 30 * 12 = 360), NPV: 125000 currency units.

How much will you repay in the second year of the mortgage (thus from periods 13 to 24)?

=CUMPRINC_ADD(0.0075;360;125000;13;24;0) returns -934.1071

In the first month you will be repaying the following amount:

=CUMPRINC_ADD(0.0075;360;125000;1;1;0) returns -68.27827

CUMIPMT

Calculates the cumulative interest payments, that is, the total interest, for an investment based on a constant interest rate.

Syntax

CUMIPMT(Rate; NPer; PV; S; E; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

NPer is the payment period with the total number of periods. NPER can also be a non-integer value.

PV is the current value in the sequence of payments.

S is the first period.

E is the last period.

Type is the due date of the payment at the beginning or end of each period.

Example

What are the interest payments at a yearly interest rate of 5.5 %, a payment period of monthly payments for 2 years and a current cash value of 5,000 currency units? The start period is the 4th and the end period is the 6th period. The payment is due at the beginning of each period.

=CUMIPMT(5.5%/12;24;5000;4;6;1) = -57.54 currency units. The interest payments for between the 4th and 6th period are 57.54 currency units.

CUMIPMT_ADD

Calculates the accumulated interest for a period.

Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

CUMIPMT_ADD(Rate; NPer; PV; StartPeriod; EndPeriod; Type)

Rate is the interest rate for each period.

NPer is the total number of payment periods. The rate and NPER must refer to the same unit, and thus both be calculated annually or monthly.

PV is the current value.

StartPeriod is the first payment period for the calculation.

EndPeriod is the last payment period for the calculation.

Type is the maturity of a payment at the end of each period (Type = 0) or at the start of the period (Type = 1).

Example

The following mortgage loan is taken out on a house:

Rate: 9.00 per cent per annum (9% / 12 = 0.0075), Duration: 30 years (NPER = 30 * 12 = 360), Pv: 125000 currency units.

How much interest must you pay in the second year of the mortgage (thus from periods 13 to 24)?

=CUMIPMT_ADD(0.0075;360;125000;13;24;0) returns -11135.23.

How much interest must you pay in the first month?

=CUMIPMT_ADD(0.0075;360;125000;1;1;0) returns -937.50.

PRICE

Calculates the market value of a fixed interest security with a par value of 100 currency units as a function of the forecast yield.

Syntax

PRICE(Settlement; Maturity; Rate; Yield; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Rate is the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate)

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 15. Calculation options in PRICE function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1999-02-15; the maturity date is 2007-11-15. The nominal rate of interest is 5.75%. The yield is 6.5%. The redemption value is 100 currency units. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). With calculation on basis 0, the price is as follows:

=PRICE("1999-02-15"; "2007-11-15"; 0.0575; 0.065; 100; 2; 0) returns 95.04287.

PRICEDISC

Calculates the price per 100 currency units of par value of a non-interest- bearing security.

Syntax

PRICEDISC(Settlement; Maturity; Discount; Redemption; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Discount is the discount of a security as a percentage.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 16. Calculation options in PRICEDISC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1999-02-15; the maturity date is 1999-03-01. Discount in per cent is 5.25%. The redemption value is 100. When calculating on basis 2 the price discount is as follows:

=PRICEDISC("1999-02-15"; "1999-03-01"; 0.0525; 100; 2) returns 99.79583.

PRICEMAT

Calculates the price per 100 currency units of par value of a security, that pays interest on the maturity date.

Syntax

PRICEMAT(Settlement; Maturity; Issue; Rate; Yield; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Issue is the date of issue of the security.

Rate is the interest rate of the security on the issue date.

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 17. Calculation options in PRICEMAT function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

Settlement date: February 15 1999, maturity date: April 13 1999, issue date: November 11 1998. Interest rate: 6.1 per cent, yield: 6.1 per cent, basis: 30/360 = 0.

The price is calculated as follows:

=PRICEMAT("1999-02-15";"1999-04-13";"1998-11-11"; 0.061; 0.061;0) returns 99.98449888.

DURATION

Calculates the number of periods required by an investment to attain the desired value.

Syntax

DURATION(Rate; PV; FV)

Rate is a constant. The interest rate is to be calculated for the entire duration (duration period). The interest rate per period is calculated by dividing the interest rate by the calculated duration. The internal rate for an annuity is to be entered as Rate/12.

PV is the present (current) value. The cash value is the deposit of cash or the current cash value of an allowance in kind. As a deposit value a positive value must be entered; the deposit must not be 0 or <0.

FV is the expected value. The future value determines the desired (future) value of the deposit.

Example

At an interest rate of 4.75%, a cash value of 25,000 currency units and a future value of 1,000,000 currency units, a duration of 79.49 payment periods is returned. The periodic payment is the resulting quotient from the future value and the duration, in this case 1,000,000/79.49=12,850.20.

SLN

Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period.The amount of the depreciation is constant during the depreciation period.

Syntax

SLN(Cost; Salvage; Life)

Cost is the initial cost of an asset.

Salvage is the value of an asset at the end of the depreciation.

Life is the depreciation period determining the number of periods in the depreciation of the asset.

Example

Lotus Symphony equipment with an initial cost of 50,000 currency units is to be depreciated over 7 years. The value at the end of the depreciation is to be 3,500 currency units.

=SLN(50000;3,500;84) = 553.57 currency units. The periodic monthly depreciation of the Lotus Symphony equipment is 553.57 currency units.

MDURATION

Calculates the modified Macauley duration of a fixed interest security in years.

Syntax

MDURATION(Settlement; Maturity; Coupon; Yield; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Coupon is the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate)

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 18. Calculation options in MDURATIONS function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-01; the maturity date is 2006-01-01. The nominal rate of interest is 8%. The yield is 9.0%. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how long is the modified duration?

=MDURATION("2001-01-01"; "2006-01-01"; 0.08; 0.09; 2; 3) returns 4.02 years.

NPV

Returns the present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. To get the net present value, subtract the cost of the project (the initial cash flow at time zero) from the returned value.

Syntax

NPV(Rate; Value1; Value2; ...)

Rate is the discount rate for a period.

Value1;... are up to 30 values, which represent deposits or withdrawals.

Example

What is the net present value of periodic payments of 10, 20 and 30 currency units with a discount rate of 8.75%. At time zero the costs were payed as -40 currency units.

=NPV(8.75%;10;20;30) = 49.43 currency units. The net present value is the returned value minus the initial costs of 40 currency units, therefore 9.43 currency units.

NOMINAL

Calculates the yearly nominal interest rate, given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

Syntax

NOMINAL(EffectiveRate; NPerY)

EffectiveRate is the effective interest rate

NPerY is the number of periodic interest payments per year.

Example

What is the nominal interest per year for an effective interest rate of 13.5% if twelve payments are made per year.

=NOMINAL(13.5%;12) = 12.73%. The nominal interest rate per year is 12.73%.

NOMINAL_ADD

Calculates the annual nominal rate of interest on the basis of the effective rate and the number of interest payments per annum.

Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

NOMINAL_ADD(EffectiveRate; NPerY)

EffectiveRate is the effective annual rate of interest.

NPerY the number of interest payments per year.

Example

What is the nominal rate of interest for a 5.3543% effective rate of interest and quarterly payment.

=NOMINAL_ADD(5.3543%;4) returns 0.0525 or 5.25%.

DOLLARFR

Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal number into a mixed decimal fraction.

Syntax

DOLLARFR(DecimalDollar; Fraction)

DecimalDollar is a decimal number.

Fraction is a whole number that is used as the denominator of the decimal fraction.

Example

=DOLLARFR(1.125;16) converts into sixteenths. The result is 1.02 for 1 plus 2/16.

=DOLLARFR(1.125;8) converts into eighths. The result is 1.1 for 1 plus 1/8.

DOLLARDE

Converts a quotation that has been given as a decimal fraction into a decimal number.

Syntax

DOLLARDE(FractionalDollar; Fraction)

FractionalDollar is a number given as a decimal fraction.

Fraction is a whole number that is used as the denominator of the decimal fraction.

Example

=DOLLARDE(1.02;16) stands for 1 and 2/16. This returns 1.125.

=DOLLARDE(1.1;8) stands for 1 and 1/8. This returns 1.125.

MIRR

Calculates the modified internal rate of return of a series of investments.

Syntax

MIRR(Values; Investment; ReinvestRate)

Values corresponds to the array or the cell reference for cells whose content corresponds to the payments.

Investment is the rate of interest of the investments (the negative values of the array)

ReinvestRate:the rate of interest of the reinvestment (the positive values of the array)

Example

Assuming a cell content of A1 = -5, A2 = 10, A3 = 15, and A4 = 8, and an investment value of 0.5 and a reinvestment value of 0.1, the result is 94.16%.

YIELD

Calculates the yield of a security.

Syntax

YIELD(Settlement; Maturity; Rate; Price; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Rate is the annual rate of interest.

Price is the price (purchase price) of the security per 100 currency units of par value.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 19. Calculation options in YIELD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1999-02-15. It matures on 2007-11-15. The rate of interest is 5.75%. The price is 95.04287 currency units per 100 units of par value, the redemption value is 100 units. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency = 2) and the basis is 0. How high is the yield?

=YIELD("1999-02-15"; "2007-11-15"; 0.0575 ;95.04287; 100; 2; 0) returns 0.065 or 6.50 per cent.

YIELDDISC

Calculates the annual yield of a non-interest-bearing security.

Syntax

YIELDDISC(Settlement; Maturity; Price; Redemption; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Price is the price (purchase price) of the security per 100 currency units of par value.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 20. Calculation options in YIELDDISC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A non-interest-bearing security is purchased on 1999-02-15. It matures on 1999-03-01. The price is 99.795 currency units per 100 units of par value, the redemption value is 100 units. The basis is 2. How high is the yield?

=YIELDDISC("1999-02-15"; "1999-03-01"; 99.795; 100; 2) returns 0.052823 or 5.2823 per cent.

YIELDMAT

Calculates the annual yield of a security, the interest of which is paid on the date of maturity.

Syntax

YIELDMAT(Settlement; Maturity; Issue; Rate; Price; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Issue is the date of issue of the security.

Rate is the interest rate of the security on the issue date.

Price is the price (purchase price) of the security per 100 currency units of par value.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 21. Calculation options in YIELDMAT function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 1999-03-15. It matures on 1999-11-03. The issue date was 1998-11-08. The rate of interest is 6.25%, the price is 100.0123 units. The basis is 0. How high is the yield?

=YIELDMAT("1999-03-15"; "1999-11-03"; "1998-11-08"; 0.0625; 100.0123; 0) returns 0.060954 or 6.0954 per cent.

PMT

Returns the periodic payment for an annuity with constant interest rates.

Syntax

PMT(Rate; NPer; PV; FV; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

NPer is the number of periods in which annuity is paid.

PV is the present value (cash value) in a sequence of payments.

FV (optional) is the desired value (future value) to be reached at the end of the periodic payments.

Type (optional) is the due date for the periodic payments. Type=1 is payment at the beginning and Type=0 is payment at the end of each period.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

What are the periodic payments at a yearly interest rate of 1.99% if the payment time is 3 years and the cash value is 25,000 currency units. There are 36 months as 36 payment periods, and the interest rate per payment period is 1.99%/12.

=PMT(1.99%/12;36;25000) = -715.96 currency units. The periodic monthly payment is therefore 715.96 currency units.

TBILLEQ

Calculates the annual return on a treasury bill (). A treasury bill is purchased on the settlement date and sold at the full par value on the maturity date, that must fall within the same year. A discount is deducted from the purchase price.

Syntax

TBILLEQ(Settlement; Maturity; Discount)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Discount is the percentage discount on acquisition of the security.

Example

Settlement date: March 31 1999, maturity date: June 1 1999, discount: 9.14 per cent.

The return on the treasury bill corresponding to a security is worked out as follows:

=TBILLEQ("1999-03-31";"1999-06-01"; 0.0914) returns 0.094151 or 9.4151 per cent.

TBILLPRICE

Calculates the price of a treasury bill per 100 currency units.

Syntax

TBILLPRICE(Settlement; Maturity; Discount)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Discount is the percentage discount upon acquisition of the security.

Example

Settlement date: March 31 1999, maturity date: June 1 1999, discount: 9 per cent.

The price of the treasury bill is worked out as follows:

=TBILLPRICE("1999-03-31";"1999-06-01"; 0.09) returns 98.45.

TBILLYIELD

Calculates the yield of a treasury bill.

Syntax

TBILLYIELD(Settlement; Maturity; Price)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Price is the price (purchase price) of the treasury bill per 100 currency units of par value.

Example

Settlement date: March 31 1999, maturity date: June 1 1999, price: 98.45 currency units.

The yield of the treasury bill is worked out as follows:

=TBILLYIELD("1999-03-31";"1999-06-01"; 98.45) returns 0.091417 or 9.1417 per cent.

Back to Financial Functions Part One

Forward to Financial Functions Part Three

Financial Functions Part Three

ODDFPRICE

Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value of a security, if the first interest date falls irregularly.

Syntax

ODDFPRICE(Settlement; Maturity; Issue; FirstCoupon; Rate; Yield; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Issue is the date of issue of the security.

FirstCoupon is the first interest date of the security.

Rate is the annual rate of interest.

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 22. Calculation options in ODDFPRICE function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

ODDFYIELD

Calculates the yield of a security if the first interest date falls irregularly.

Syntax

ODDFYIELD(Settlement; Maturity; Issue; FirstCoupon; Rate; Price; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Issue is the date of issue of the security.

FirstCoupon is the first interest period of the security.

Rate is the annual rate of interest.

Price is the price of the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 23. Calculation options in ODDFYIELD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

ODDLPRICE

Calculates the price per 100 currency units par value of a security, if the last interest date falls irregularly.

Syntax

ODDLPRICE(Settlement; Maturity; LastInterest; Rate; Yield; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

LastInterest is the last interest date of the security.

Rate is the annual rate of interest.

Yield is the annual yield of the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 24. Calculation options in ODDLPRICE function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

Settlement date: February 7 1999, maturity date: June 15 1999, last interest: October 15 1998. Interest rate: 3.75 per cent, yield: 4.05 per cent, redemption value: 100 currency units, frequency of payments: half-yearly = 2, basis: = 0

The price per 100 currency units per value of a security, which has an irregular last interest date, is calculated as follows:

=ODDLPRICE("1999-02-07";"1999-06-15";"1998-10-15"; 0.0375; 0.0405;100;2;0) returns 99.87829.

ODDLYIELD

Calculates the yield of a security if the last interest date falls irregularly.

Syntax

ODDLYIELD(Settlement; Maturity; LastInterest; Rate; Price; Redemption; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

LastInterest is the last interest date of the security.

Rate is the annual rate of interest.

Price is the price of the security.

Redemption is the redemption value per 100 currency units of par value.

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 25. Calculation options in ODDLYIELD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

Settlement date: April 20 1999, maturity date: June 15 1999, last interest: October 15 1998. Interest rate: 3.75 per cent, price: 99.875 currency units, redemption value: 100 currency units, frequency of payments: half-yearly = 2, basis: = 0

The yield of the security, that has an irregular last interest date, is calculated as follows:

=ODDLYIELD("1999-04-20";"1999-06-15"; "1998-10-15"; 0.0375; 99.875; 100;2;0) returns 0.044873 or 4.4873%.

VDB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a variable declining balance method.

Syntax

VDB(Cost; Salvage; Life; S; End; Factor; Type)

Cost is the initial value of an asset.

Salvage is the value of an asset at the end of the depreciation.

Life is the depreciation duration of the asset.

S is the start of the depreciation. A must be entered in the same date unit as the duration.

End is the end of the depreciation.

Factor (optional) is the depreciation factor. Factor = 2 is double rate depreciation.

Type is an optional parameter. Type = 1 means a switch to linear depreciation. In Type = 0 no switch is made.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

What is the declining-balance double-rate depreciation for a period if the initial cost is 35,000 currency units and the value at the end of the depreciation is 7,500 currency units. The depreciation period is 3 years. The depreciation from the 10th to the 20th period is calculated.

=VDB(35000;7500;36;10;20;2) = 8603.80 currency units. The depreciation during the period between the 10th and the 20th period is 8,603.80 currency units.

XIRR

Calculates the internal rate of return for a list of payments which take place on different dates. The calculation is based on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring leap years.

If the payments take place at regular intervals, use the IRR function.

Syntax

XIRR(Values; Dates; Guess)

Values and Dates refer to a series of payments and the series of associated date values. The first pair of dates defines the start of the payment plan. All other date values must be later, but need not be in any order. The series of values must contain at least one negative and one positive value (receipts and deposits).

Guess (optional) is a guess that can be input for the internal rate of return. The default is 10%.

Example

The following example shows the calculation of the internal rate of return for five payments:

Table 26. Example of XIRR calculations
  A B C
1 2001-01-01 - 10000 Received
2 2001-01-02 2000 Deposited
3 2001-03-15 2500  
4 2001-05-12 5000  
5 2001-08-10 1000  

=XIRR(B1:B5; A1:A5; 0.1) returns 0.1828.

XNPV

Calculates the capital value (net present value)for a list of payments which take place on different dates. The calculation is based on a 365 days per year basis, ignoring leap years.

If the payments take place at regular intervals, use the NPV function.

Syntax

XNPV(Rate; Values; Dates)

Rate is the internal rate of return for the payments.

Values and Dates refer to a series of payments and the series of associated date values. The first pair of dates defines the start of the payment plan. All other date values must be later, but need not be in any order. The series of values must contain at least one negative and one positive value (receipts and deposits)

Example

Calculation of the net present value for the above-mentioned five payments for a notional internal rate of return of 6%.

=XNPV(0.06;B1:B5;A1:A5) returns 323.02.

RRI

Calculates the interest rate resulting from the profit (return) of an investment.

Syntax

RRI(P; PV; FV)

P is the number of periods needed for calculating the interest rate.

PV is the present (current) value. The cash value is the deposit of cash or the current cash value of an allowance in kind. As a deposit value a positive value must be entered; the deposit must not be 0 or <0.

FV determines what is desired as the cash value of the deposit.

Example

For four periods (years) and a cash value of 7,500 currency units, the interest rate of the return is to be calculated if the future value is 10,000 currency units.

=RRI(4;7500;10000) = 7.46 %

The interest rate must be 7.46 % so that 7,500 currency units will become 10,000 currency units.

RATE

Returns the constant interest rate per period of an annuity.

Syntax

RATE(NPer; Pmt; PV; FV; Type; Guess)

NPer is the total number of periods, during which payments are made (payment period).

Pmt is the constant payment (annuity) paid during each period.

PV is the cash value in the sequence of payments.

FV (optional) is the future value, which is reached at the end of the periodic payments.

Type (optional) is the due date of the periodic payment, either at the beginning or at the end of a period.

Guess (optional) determines the estimated value of the interest with iterative calculation.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

What is the constant interest rate for a payment period of 3 periods if 10 currency units are paid regularly and the present cash value is 900 currency units.

=RATE(3;10;900) = -121% The interest rate is therefore 121%.

INTRATE

Calculates the annual interest rate that results when a security (or other item) is purchased at an investment value and sold at a redemption value. No interest is paid.

Syntax

INTRATE(Settlement; Maturity; Investment; Redemption; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security is sold.

Investment is the purchase price.

Redemption is the selling price.

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 27. Calculation options in INTRATE function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A painting is bought on 1990-01-15 for 1 million and sold on 2002-05-05 for 2 million. The basis is daily balance calculation (basis = 3). What is the average annual level of interest?

=INTRATE("1990-01-15"; "2002-05-05"; 1000000; 2000000; 3) returns 8.12%.

COUPNCD

Returns the date of the first interest date after the settlement date. Format the result as a date.

Syntax

COUPNCD(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 28. Calculation options for COUPNCD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) when is the next interest date?

=COUPNCD("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 2001-05-15.

COUPDAYS

Returns the number of days in the current interest period in which the settlement date falls.

Syntax

COUPDAYS(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 29. Calculation options in COUPDAYS function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how many days are there in the interest period in which the settlement date falls?

=COUPDAYS("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 181.

COUPDAYSNC

Returns the number of days from the settlement date until the next interest date.

Syntax

COUPDAYSNC(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 30. Calculation options in COUPDAYSNC function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how many days are there until the next interest payment?

=COUPDAYSNC("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 110.

COUPDAYBS

Returns the number of days from the first day of interest payment on a security until the settlement date.

Syntax

COUPDAYBS(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 31. Calculation options in COUPDAYSBS function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how many days is this?

=COUPDAYBS("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 71.

COUPPCD

Returns the date of the interest date prior to the settlement date. Format the result as a date.

Syntax

COUPPCD(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 32. Calculation options in COUPPCD function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) what was the interest date prior to purchase?

=COUPPCD("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 2000-15-11.

COUPNUM

Returns the number of coupons (interest payments) between the settlement date and the maturity date.

Syntax

COUPNUM(Settlement; Maturity; Frequency; Basis)

Settlement is the date of purchase of the security.

Maturity is the date on which the security matures (expires).

Frequency is the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4).

Basis is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated.

Table 33. Calculation options for COUPNUM function
Basis Calculation
0 or missing US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each
1 Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year
2 Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days
3 Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days
4 European method, 12 months of 30 days each

Example

A security is purchased on 2001-01-25; the date of maturity is 2001-11-15. Interest is paid half-yearly (frequency is 2). Using daily balance interest calculation (basis 3) how many interest dates are there?

=COUPNUM("2001-01-25"; "2001-11-15"; 2; 3) returns 2.

IPMT

Calculates the periodic amortizement for an investment with regular payments and a constant interest rate.

Syntax

IPMT(Rate; Period; NPer; PV; FV; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

Period is the period, for which the compound interest is calculated. Period=NPER if compound interest for the last period is calculated.

NPer is the total number of periods, during which annuity is paid.

PV is the present cash value in sequence of payments.

FV (optional) is the desired value (future value) at the end of the periods.

Type is the due date for the periodic payments.

Example

What is the interest rate during the fifth period (year) if the constant interest rate is 5% and the cash value is 15,000 currency units? The periodic payment is seven years.

=IPMT(5%;5;7;15000) = -352.97 currency units. The compound interest during the fifth period (year) is 352.97 currency units.

FV

Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate (Future Value).

Syntax

FV(Rate; NPer; Pmt; PV; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

NPer is the total number of periods (payment period).

Pmt is the annuity paid regularly per period.

PV (optional) is the (present) cash value of an investment.

Type (optional) defines whether the payment is due at the beginning or the end of a period.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

What is the value at the end of an investment if the interest rate is 4% and the payment period is two years, with a periodic payment of 750 currency units. The investment has a present value of 2,500 currency units.

=FV(4%;2;750;2500) = -4234.00 currency units. The value at the end of the investment is 4234.00 currency units.

FVSCHEDULE

Calculates the accumulated value of the starting capital for a series of periodically varying interest rates.

Syntax

FVSCHEDULE(Principal; Schedule)

Principal is the starting capital.

Schedule is a series of interest rates, for example, as a range H3:H5 or as a (List) (see example).

Example

1000 currency units have been invested in for three years. The interest rates were 3%, 4% and 5% per annum. What is the value after three years?

=FVSCHEDULE(1000;{0.03;0.04;0.05}) returns 1124.76.

NPER

Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate.

Syntax

NPER(Rate; Pmt; PV; FV; Type)

Rate is the periodic interest rate.

Pmt is the constant annuity paid in each period.

PV is the present value (cash value) in a sequence of payments.

FV (optional) is the future value, which is reached at the end of the last period.

Type (optional) is the due date of the payment at the beginning or at the end of the period.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

How many payment periods does a payment period cover with a periodic interest rate of 6%, a periodic payment of 153.75 currency units and a present cash value of 2.600 currency units.

=NPER(6%;153.75;2600) = -12,02. The payment period covers 12.02 periods.

Back to Financial Functions Part One

Back to Financial Functions Part Two

Information Functions

This category contains the Information functions. The functions are: CELL , CURRENT , FORMULA , ISBLANK , ISERR , ISERROR , ISEVEN_ADD , ISFORMULA , ISLOGICAL , ISNA , ISNONTEXT , ISNUMBER , ISODD_ADD , ISREF , ISTEXT , N , NA , INFO, TYPE .

The data in the following table serves as the basis for some of the examples in the function descriptions:

  C D
2 x value y value
3 -5 -3
4 -2 0
5 -1 1
6 0 3
7 2 4
8 4 6
9 6 8

CURRENT

Calculates the current value of a formula at the actual position.

Syntax

CURRENT()

Example

For example, to assign the current value to the current cell:

Input number 1 in A1,and number 2 in B1

enter a formula:=A1+B1+CURRENT() in C1 and press Instant Pilot:Functions button and the value is set as:

1+2+CURRENT() yields 6 (1+2=CURRENT+CURRENT=6)

or you can try: 1+CURRENT()+2 yields 4 (1=CURRENT+CURRENT+2=4)

FORMULA

Displays the formula of a formula cell at any position. The formula will be returned as a string in the Reference position. If no formula cell can be found,or if the presented argument is not a reference, the error value #N/A is set.

Syntax

FORMULA()

Example

The cell A8 contains the result of a formula having the value 23. You can now use the Formula function in cell A1 to display the formula in cell A8.

=FORMULA(A8)

ISREF

Tests if the content of one or several cells is a reference. Verifies the type of references in a cell or a range of cells.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISREF(value)

Value is the value to be tested, to determine whether it is a reference.

Example

ISREF(C5) returns the result TRUE

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISERR

Returns TRUE if the value refers to any error value except #N/A. You can use this function to control error values in certain cells.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISERR(value)

Value is any value or expression in which a test is performed to determine whether an error value not equal to #N/A is present.

Example

ISERR(C5) returns FALSE.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISERROR

The ISERROR tests if the cells contain general error values. ISERROR recognizes the #N/A error value.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISERROR(value)

Value is any value where a test is performed to determine whether it is an error value.

Example

ISERROR(C8) returns FALSE.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISFORMULA

Returns TRUE if a cell is a formula cell.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISFORMULA(reference)

Reference indicates the reference to a cell in which a test will be performed to determine if it contains a reference.

Example

ISFORMULA(C4) returns FALSE as a result.

ISEVEN_ADD

Tests for even numbers. Returns TRUE (1) if the number returns a whole number when divided by 2.

Syntax

ISEVEN_ADD(Number)

Number: the number to be tested.

Example

=ISEVEN_ADD(5) returns 0.

ISNONTEXT

Tests if the cell contents are text or numbers, and returns FALSE if the contents are text.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISNONTEXT(value)

Value is any value or expression where a test is performed to determine whether it is a text or numbers or a Boolean value.

Example

ISNONTEXT(D2) returns FALSE.

ISNONTEXT(D9) returns TRUE.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISBLANK

Returns TRUE if the reference to a cell is blank. This function is used to determine if the content of a cell is empty. A cell with a formula inside is not empty.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISBLANK(value)

Value is the content to be tested.

Example

ISBLANK(D2) returns FALSE as a result.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISLOGICAL

Returns TRUE if the cell contains a logical number format. The function is used in order to check for both TRUE and FALSE values in certain cells.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISLOGICAL(value)

Value is the value to be tested for logical number format.

Example

ISLOGICAL(D5) returns FALSE as a result.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISNA

Returns TRUE if a cell contains the #N/A (value not available) error value.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISNA(value)

Value is the value or expression to be tested.

Example

ISNA(D3) returns FALSE as a result.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISTEXT

Returns TRUE if the cell contents refer to text.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISTEXT(value)

Value is a value, number, Boolean value, or an error value to be tested.

Example

ISTEXT(D9) returns the result TRUE.

ISTEXT(C3) returns FALSE as a result.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

ISODD_ADD

Returns TRUE (1) if the number does not return a whole number when divided by 2.

Syntax

ISODD_ADD(Number)

Number: the number to be tested.

Example

=ISODD_ADD(5) returns 1.

ISNUMBER

Returns TRUE if the value refers to a number.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

ISNUMBER(value)

Value is any expression to be tested to determine whether it is a number or text.

Example

ISNUMBER(C3) returns the result TRUE.

ISNUMBER(C2) returns FALSE as a result.

See also the following functions:

ERRORTYPE , ISEVEN , ISODD , TYPE .

N

Returns the number 1, if the parameter is TRUE. Returns the parameter, if the parameter is a number. Returns the number 0 for other parameters.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

N(value)

Value is the parameter to be converted into a number.

Example

N(TRUE) returns 1

N(FALSE) returns 0

N(100) returns 100

N("abc") returns 0

See also the following functions:

T .

NA

Returns the error value #N/A.

Syntax

NA()

Example

NA() converts the contents of the cell into #N/A.

See also the following functions:

ISREF , ISERR , ISERROR , ISFORMULA . ISNONTEXT , ISBLANK , ISLOGICAL , ISNA , ISTEXT , ISNUMBER .

TYPE

Returns the type of value.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

Syntax

TYPE(value)

Value is a specific value for which the data type is determined. Value 1 = number, value 2 = text, value 4 = Boolean value, value 8 = formula, value 16 = error value.

Example (see example table above)

TYPE(C2) returns 2 as a result.

TYPE(D9) returns 1 as a result.

INFO

Returns information for the current 1-2-3 session.

Syntax

Attribute is one of the following items, entered as text.

  • Support attributes
  • Author
  • Creation-date
  • Editing-time
  • Worksheet-number
  • Setup-International-Currency-Default
  • Setup-Recalculate-Order

CELL

Returns information on address, formatting or contents of a cell.

Syntax

CELL(Info_type; Reference)

Info_type is the character string that specifies the type of information. The character string is always in English. Upper or lower case is optional.

Info_type Meaning
COL

Returns the number of the referenced column.

Cell("COL";D2) returns 4.

ROW

Returns the number of the referenced row.

Cell("ROW";D2) returns 2.

SHEET

Returns the number of the referenced sheet.

Cell("Sheet";Sheet3.D2) returns 3.

ADDRESS

Returns the absolute address of the referenced cell.

CELL("ADDRESS";D2) returns $D$2.

CELL("ADDRESS";Sheet3.D2) returns $Sheet3.$D$2.

CELL("ADDRESS";'X:\dr\test.sxc'#$Sheet1.D2) returns 'file:///X:/dr/test.sxc'#$Sheet1.$D$2.

FILENAME

Returns the file name and the sheet number of the referenced cell.

CELL("FILENAME";D2) returns 'file:///X:/dr/own.sxc'#$Sheet1, if the formula in the current document X:\dr\own.sxc is located in Sheet1.

CELL("FILENAME";'X:\dr\test.sxc'#$Sheet1.D2) returns 'file:///X:/dr/test.sxc'#$Sheet1.

COORD

Returns the complete cell address in Lotus(TM) notation.

CELL("COORD"; D2) returns $A:$D$2.

CELL("COORD"; Sheet3.D2) returns $C:$D$2.

CONTENTS Returns the contents of the referenced cell, without any formatting.
TYPE

Returns the type of cell contents.

b = blank. empty cell

l = label. Text, result of a formula as text

v = value. Value, result of a formula as a number

WIDTH Returns the width of the referenced column. The unit is the number of zeros (0) that fit into the column in the default text and the default size.
PREFIX

Returns the alignment of the referenced cell.

' = align left or left-justified

" = align right

^ = centered

\ = repeating (currently inactive)

PROTECT

Returns the status of the cell protection for the cell.

1 = cell is protected

0 = cell is not protected

FORMAT

Returns a character string that indicates the number format.

, = number with thousands separator

F = number without thousands separator

C = currency format

S = exponential representation, for example, 1.234+E56

P = percentage

In the above formats, the number of decimal places after the decimal separator is given as a number. Example: the number format #,##0.0 returns ,1 and the number format 00.000% returns P3

D1 = MMM-D-YY, MM-D-YY and similar formats

D2 = DD-MM

D3 = MM-YY

D4 = DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS

D5 = MM-DD

D6 = HH:MM:SS AM/PM

D7 = HH:MM AM/PM

D8 = HH:MM:SS

D9 = HH:MM

G = All other formats

- (Minus) at the end = negative numbers are formatted in color

() (brackets) at the end = there is an opening bracket in the format code

COLOR Returns 1, if negative values have been formatted in color, otherwise 0.
PARENTHESES Returns 1 if the format code contains an opening bracket (, otherwise 0.

Reference (list of options) is the position of the cell to be examined. If Reference is a range, the cell moves to the top left of the range. If Reference is missing, IBM Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets uses the position of the cell in which this formula is located. Microsoft Excel uses the reference of the cell in which the cursor is positioned.

Logical Functions

This category contains the Logical functions.

To access this command...

Create - Function - Category Logical

AND

Returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE. If one of the elements is FALSE, this function returns the FALSE value.

The arguments are either logical expressions themselves (TRUE, 1<5, 2+3=7, B8<10) that return logical values, or arrays (A1:C3) containing logical values.

Note Icon When a function expects a single value, but you entered a cell range, then the value from the cell range is taken that is in the same column or row as the formula.
Note Icon If the entered range is outside of the current column or row of the formula, the function returns the error value #VALUE!

Syntax

AND(LogicalValue1; LogicalValue2 ...LogicalValue30)

LogicalValue1; LogicalValue2 ...LogicalValue30 are conditions to be checked. All conditions can be either TRUE or FALSE. If a range is entered as a parameter, the function uses the value from the range that is in the current column or row. The result is TRUE if the logical value in all cells within the cell range is TRUE.

Example

The logical values of entries 12<13; 14>12, and 7<6 are to be checked:

=AND(12<13;14>12;7<6) returns FALSE.

=AND (FALSE;TRUE) returns FALSE.

FALSE

Returns the logical value FALSE. The FALSE() function does not require any arguments, and always returns the logical value FALSE.

Syntax

FALSE()

Example

=FALSE() returns FALSE

=NOT(FALSE()) returns TRUE

IF

Specifies a logical test to be performed.

Syntax

IF(Test; ThenValue; "OtherwiseValue")

Test is any value or expression that can be TRUE or FALSE.

ThenValue (optional) is the value that is returned if the logical test is TRUE.

OtherwiseValue (optional) is the value that is returned if the logical test is FALSE.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Examples

=IF(A1>5;100;"too small") If the value in A1 is higher than 5, the value 100 is entered in the current cell; otherwise, the text “too small� (without quotes) is entered.

NOT

Inverts the logical value.

Syntax

NOT(LogicalValue)

LogicalValue is any value to be reversed.

Example

=NOT(A). A=TRUE reverses to A=FALSE.

OR

Returns TRUE if at least one argument is TRUE. This function returns the value FALSE, if all the arguments have the logical value FALSE.

The arguments are either logical expressions themselves (TRUE, 1<5, 2+3=7, B8<10) that return logical values, or arrays (A1:C3) containing logical values.

Note Icon When a function expects a single value, but you entered a cell range, then the value from the cell range is taken that is in the same column or row as the formula.
Note Icon If the entered range is outside of the current column or row of the formula, the function returns the error value #VALUE!

Syntax

OR(LogicalValue1; LogicalValue2 ...LogicalValue30)

LogicalValue1; LogicalValue2 ...LogicalValue30 are conditions to be checked. All conditions can be either TRUE or FALSE. If a range is entered as a parameter, the function uses the value from the range that is in the current column or row.

Example

The logical values of entries 12<11; 13>22, and 45=45 are to be checked.

=OR(12<11;13>22;45=45) returns TRUE.

=OR(FALSE;TRUE) returns TRUE.

TRUE

The logical value is set to TRUE. The TRUE() function does not require any arguments, and always returns the logical value TRUE.

Syntax

TRUE()

Example

If A=TRUE and B=FALSE the following examples appear:

=AND(A;B) returns FALSE

=OR(A;B) returns TRUE

=NOT(AND(A;B)) returns TRUE

Mathematical Functions

This category contains the Mathematical functions for Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets. To open the Function Wizard, choose Create - Function.

ABS

Returns the absolute value of a number.

Syntax

ABS(Number)

Number is the number whose absolute value is to be calculated. The absolute value of a number is its value without the +/- sign.

Example

=ABS(-56) returns 56.

=ABS(12) returns 12.

=ABS(0) returns 0.

COUNTBLANK

Returns the number of empty cells.

Syntax

COUNTBLANK(Range)

Returns the number of empty cells in the cell range Range.

Example

=COUNTBLANK(A1:B2) returns 4 if cells A1, A2, B1, and B2 are all empty.

ACOS

Returns the inverse trigonometric cosine of a number.

Syntax

ACOS(Number)

This function returns the inverse trigonometric cosine of Number, that is the angle (in radians) whose cosine is Number. The angle returned is between 0 and PI.

To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.

Example

=ACOS(-1) returns 3.14159265358979 (PI radians)

=DEGREES(ACOS(0.5)) returns 60. The cosine of 60 degrees is 0.5.

ACOSH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.

Syntax

ACOSH(Number)

This function returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of Number, that is the number whose hyperbolic cosine is Number.

Number must be greater than or equal to 1.

Example

=ACOSH(1) returns 0.

=ACOSH(COSH(4)) returns 4.

ACOT

Returns the inverse cotangent (the arccotangent) of the given number.

Syntax

ACOT(Number)

This function returns the inverse trigonometric cotangent of Number, that is the angle (in radians) whose cotangent is Number. The angle returned is between 0 and PI.

To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.

Example

=ACOT(1) returns 0.785398163397448 (PI/4 radians).

=DEGREES(ACOT(1)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.

ACOTH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of the given number.

Syntax

ACOTH(Number)

This function returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of Number, that is the number whose hyperbolic cotangent is Number.

An error results if Number is between -1 and 1 inclusive.

Example

=ACOTH(1.1) returns inverse hyperbolic cotangent of 1.1, approximately 1.52226.

ASIN

Returns the inverse trigonometric sine of a number.

Syntax

ASIN(Number)

This function returns the inverse trigonometric sine of Number, that is the angle (in radians) whose sine is Number. The angle returned is between -PI/2 and +PI/2.

To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.

Example

=ASIN(0) returns 0.

=ASIN(1) returns 1.5707963267949 (PI/2 radians).

=DEGREES(ASIN(0.5)) returns 30. The sine of 30 degrees is 0.5.

ASINH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.

Syntax

ASINH(Number)

This function returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of Number, that is the number whose hyperbolic sine is Number.

Example

=ASINH(-90) returns approximately -5.1929877.

=ASINH(SINH(4)) returns 4.

ATAN

Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of a number.

Syntax

ATAN(Number)

This function returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of Number, that is the angle (in radians) whose tangent is Number. The angle returned is between -PI/2 and PI/2.

To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.

Example

=ATAN(1) returns 0.785398163397448 (PI/4 radians).

=DEGREES(ATAN(1)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.

ATAN2

Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of the specified x and y coordinates.

Syntax

ATAN2(NumberX; NumberY)

NumberX is the value of the x coordinate.

NumberY is the value of the y coordinate.

ATAN2 returns the inverse trigonometric tangent, that is, the angle (in radians) between the x-axis and a line from point NumberX, NumberY to the origin. The angle returned is between -PI and PI.

To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function.

Example

=ATAN2(20;20) returns 0.785398163397448 (PI/4 radians).

=DEGREES(ATAN2(12.3;12.3)) returns 45. The tangent of 45 degrees is 1.

ATANH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.

Syntax

ATANH(Number)

This function returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of Number, that is the number whose hyperbolic tangent is Number.

Number must obey the condition -1 < number < 1.

Example

=ATANH(0) returns 0.

COS

Returns the cosine of the given angle (in radians).

Syntax

COS(Number)

Returns the (trigonometric) cosine of Number, the angle in radians.

To return the cosine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.

Examples

=COS(PI()/2) returns 0, the cosine of PI/2 radians.

=COS(RADIANS(60)) returns 0.5, the cosine of 60 degrees.

COSH

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.

Syntax

COSH(Number)

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of Number.

Example

=COSH(0) returns 1, the hyperbolic cosine of 0.

COT

Returns the cotangent of the given angle (in radians).

Syntax

COT(Number)

Returns the (trigonometric) cotangent of Number, the angle in radians.

To return the cotangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.

The cotangent of an angle is equivalent to 1 divided by the tangent of that angle.

Examples:

=COT(PI()/4) returns 1, the cotangent of PI/4 radians.

=COT(RADIANS(45)) returns 1, the cotangent of 45 degrees.

COTH

Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a given number (angle).

Syntax

COTH(Number)

Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of Number.

Example

=COTH(1) returns the hyperbolic cotangent of 1, approximately 1.3130.

DEGREES

Converts radians into degrees.

Syntax

DEGREES(Number)

Number is the angle in radians to be converted to degrees.

Example

=DEGREES(PI()) returns 180 degrees.

EXP

Returns e raised to the power of a number. The constant e has a value of approximately 2.71828182845904.

Syntax

EXP(Number)

Number is the power to which e is to be raised.

Example

=EXP(1) returns 2.71828182845904, the mathematical constant e to Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets's accuracy.

FACT

Returns the factorial of a number.

Syntax

FACT(Number)

Returns Number!, the factorial of Number, calculated as 1*2*3*4* ... * Number.

=FACT(0) returns 1 by definition.

The factorial of a negative number returns the "invalid argument" error.

Example

=FACT(3) returns 6.

=FACT(0) returns 1.

INT

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.

Syntax

INT(Number)

Returns Number rounded down to the nearest integer.

Negative numbers round down to the integer below.

Example

=INT(5.7) returns 5.

=INT(-1.3) returns -2.

EUROCONVERT

Converts between old European national currency and to and from Euros.

Syntax

EUROCONVERT(Value; "From_currency"; "To_currency", full_precision, triangulation_precision)

Value is the amount of the currency to be converted. From_currency and To_currency are the currency units to convert from and to respectively. These must be text, the official abbreviation for the currency (for example, "EUR"). The rates (shown per Euro) were set by the European Commission. Full_precision is optional. If omitted or False, the result is rounded according to the decimals of the To currency. If Full_precision is True, the result is not rounded. Triangulation_precision is optional. If Triangulation_precision is given and >=3, the intermediate result of a triangular conversion (currency1,EUR,currency2) is rounded to that precision. If Triangulation_precision is omitted, the intermediate result is not rounded. Also if To currency is "EUR", Triangulation_precision is used as if triangulation was needed and conversion from EUR to EUR was applied.

Examples

=EUROCONVERT(100;"ATS";"EUR") converts 100 Austrian Schillings into Euros.

=EUROCONVERT(100;"EUR";"DEM")converts 100 Euros into German Marks.

EVEN

Rounds a positive number up to the next even integer and a negative number down to the next even integer.

Syntax

EVEN(Number)

Returns Number rounded to the next even integer up, away from zero.

Examples

=EVEN(2.3) returns 4.

=EVEN(2) returns 2.

=EVEN(0) returns 0.

=EVEN(-0.5) returns -2.

GCD

Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.

The greatest common divisor is the positive largest integer which will divide, without remainder, each of the given integers.

Syntax

GCD(Integer1; Integer2; ...; Integer30)

Integer1 To 30 are up to 30 integers whose greatest common divisor is to be calculated.

Example

=GCD(16;32;24) gives the result 8, because 8 is the largest number that can divide 16, 24 and 32 without a remainder.

=GCD(B1:B3) where cells B1, B2, B3 contain 9, 12, 9 gives 3.

GCD_ADD

The result is the greatest common divisor of a list of numbers.
Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

GCD_ADD(Number(s))

Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.

Example

=GCD_ADD(5;15;25) returns 5.

ISEVEN

Returns TRUE if the value is an even integer, or FALSE if the value is odd.

Syntax

ISEVEN(Value)

Value is the value to be checked.

If Value is not an integer any digits after the decimal point are ignored. The sign of Value is also ignored.

Example

=ISEVEN(48) returns TRUE

=ISEVEN(33) returns FALSE

=ISEVEN(0) returns TRUE

=ISEVEN(-2.1) returns TRUE

=ISEVEN(3.999) returns FALSE

ISODD

Returns TRUE if the value is odd, or FALSE if the number is even.

Syntax

ISODD(value)

Value is the value to be checked.

If Value is not an integer any digits after the decimal point are ignored. The sign of Value is also ignored.

Example

=ISODD(33) returns TRUE

=ISODD(48) returns FALSE

=ISODD(3.999) returns TRUE

=ISODD(-3.1) returns TRUE

LCM

Returns the least common multiple of one or more integers.

Syntax

LCM(Integer1; Integer2; ...; Integer30)

Integer1 to 30 are up to 30 integers whose lowest common multiple is to be calculated.

Example

If you enter the numbers 512; 1024 and 2000 in the Integer 1;2 and 3 text boxes, 128000 will be returned as the result.

LCM_ADD

The result is the lowest common multiple of a list of numbers.
Note Icon The functions whose names end with _ADD return the same results as the corresponding Microsoft Excel functions. Use the functions without _ADD to get results based on international standards. For example, the WEEKNUM function calculates the week number of a given date based on international standard ISO 6801, while WEEKNUM_ADD returns the same week number as Microsoft Excel.

Syntax

LCM_ADD(Number(s))

Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.

Example

=LCM_ADD(5;15;25) returns 75.

COMBIN

Returns the number of combinations for elements without repetition.

Syntax

COMBIN(Count1; Count2)

Count1 is the number of items in the set.

Count2 is the number of items to choose from the set.

COMBIN returns the number of ordered ways to choose these items. For example if there are 3 items A, B and C in a set, you can choose 2 items in 3 different ways, namely AB, AC and BC.

COMBIN implements the formula: Count1!/(Count2!*(Count1-Count2)!)

Example

=COMBIN(3;2) returns 3.

COMBINA

Returns the number of combinations of a subset of items including repetitions.

Syntax

COMBINA(Count1; Count2)

Count1 is the number of items in the set.

Count2 is the number of items to choose from the set.

COMBINA returns the number of unique ways to choose these items, where the order of choosing is irrelevant, and repetition of items is allowed. For example if there are 3 items A, B and C in a set, you can choose 2 items in 6 different ways, namely AB, BA, AC, CA, BC and CB.

COMBINA implements the formula: (Count1+Count2-1)! / (Count2!(Count1-1)!)

Example

=COMBINA(3;2) returns 6.

TRUNC

Truncates a number by removing decimal places.

Syntax

TRUNC(Number; Count)

Returns Number with at most Count decimal places. Excess decimal places are simply removed, irrespective of sign.

TRUNC(Number; 0) behaves as INT(Number) for positive numbers, but effectively rounds towards zero for negative numbers.

Warning Icon The visible decimal places of the result are specified in Tools - Options - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - Calculate.

Example

=TRUNC(1.239;2) returns 1.23. The 9 is lost.

=TRUNC(-1.234999;3) returns -1.234. All the 9s are lost.

LN

Returns the natural logarithm based on the constant e of a number. The constant e has a value of approximately 2.71828182845904.

Syntax

LN(Number)

Number is the value whose natural logarithm is to be calculated.

Example

=LN(3) returns the natural logarithm of 3 (approximately 1.0986).

=LN(EXP(321)) returns 321.

LOG

Returns the logarithm of a number to the specified base.

Syntax

LOG(Number; Base)

Number is the value whose logarithm is to be calculated.

Base is the base for the logarithm calculation.

Example

=LOG(10;3) returns the logarithm to base 3 of 10 (approximately 2.0959).

=LOG(7^4;7) returns 4.

LOG10

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.

Syntax

LOG10(Number)

Returns the logarithm to base 10 of Number.

Example

=LOG10(5) returns the base-10 logarithm of 5 (approximately 0.69897).

CEILING

Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of Significance.

Syntax

CEILING(Number; Significance; Mode)

Number is the number that is to be rounded up.

Significance is the number to whose multiple the value is to be rounded up.

Mode is an optional value. If the Mode value is given and not equal to zero, and if Number and Significance are negative, then rounding is done based on the absolute value of Number. This parameter is ignored when exporting to MS Excel as Excel does not know any third parameter.

Warning Icon If both parameters Number and Significance are negative and the Mode value is equal to zero or is not given, the results in Lotus Symphony and Excel will differ after the import has been completed. If you export the spreadsheet to Excel, use Mode=1 to see the same results in Excel as in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Example

=CEILING(-11;-2) returns -10

=CEILING(-11;-2;0) returns -10

=CEILING(-11;-2;1) returns -12

PI

Returns 3.14159265358979, the value of the mathematical constant PI to 14 decimal places.

Syntax

PI()

Example

=PI() returns 3.14159265358979.

MULTINOMIAL

Returns the factorial of the sum of the arguments divided by the product of the factorials of the arguments.

Syntax

MULTINOMIAL(Number(s))

Number(s) is a list of up to 30 numbers.

Example

=MULTINOMIAL(F11:H11) returns 1260, if F11 to H11 contain the values 2, 3 and 4. This corresponds to the formula =(2+3+4)! / (2!*3!*4!)

POWER

Returns a number raised to a power.

Syntax

POWER(Base; Power)

Returns Base raised to the power of Power.

The same result may be achieved by using the exponentiation operator ^:

Base^Power

Example

=POWER(4;3) returns 64, which is 4 to the power of 3.

=4^3 also returns 4 to the power of 3.

SERIESSUM

Sums the first terms of a power series.

SERIESSUM(x;n;m;coefficients) = coefficient_1*x^n + coefficient_2*x^(n+m) + coefficient_3*x^(n+2m) +...+ coefficient_i*x^(n+(i-1)m)

Syntax

SERIESSUM(X; N; M; Coefficients)

X is the input value for the power series.

N is the initial power

M is the increment to increase N

Coefficients is a series of coefficients. For each coefficient the series sum is extended by one section.

PRODUCT

Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.

Syntax

PRODUCT(Number1; Number2; ...; Number30)

Number1 to 30 are up to 30 arguments whose product is to be calculated.

PRODUCT returns number1 * number2 * number3 * ...

Example

=PRODUCT(2;3;4) returns 24.

SUMSQ

If you want to calculate the sum of the squares of numbers (totaling up of the squares of the arguments), enter these into the text fields.

Syntax

SUMSQ(Number1; Number2; ...; Number30)

Number1 to 30 are up to 30 arguments the sum of whose squares is to be calculated.

Example

If you enter the numbers 2; 3 and 4 in the Number 1; 2 and 3 text boxes, 29 is returned as the result.

MOD

Returns the remainder when one integer is divided by another.

Syntax

MOD(Dividend; Divisor)

For integer arguments this function returns Dividend modulo Divisor, that is the remainder when Dividend is divided by Divisor.

This function is implemented as Dividend - Divisor * INT(Dividend/Divisor) , and this formula gives the result if the arguments are not integer.

Example

=MOD(22;3) returns 1, the remainder when 22 is divided by 3.

=MOD(11.25;2.5) returns 1.25.

QUOTIENT

Returns the integer part of a division operation.

Syntax

QUOTIENT(Numerator; Denominator)

Returns the integer part of Numerator divided by Denominator.

QUOTIENT is equivalent to INT(numerator/denominator), except that it may report errors with different error codes.

Example

=QUOTIENT(11;3) returns 3. The remainder of 2 is lost.

RADIANS

Converts degrees to radians.

Syntax

RADIANS(Number)

Number is the angle in degrees to be converted to radians.

Example

=RADIANS(90) returns 1.5707963267949, which is PI/2 to Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets's accuracy.

ROUND

Rounds a number to a certain number of decimal places.

Syntax

ROUND(Number; Count)

Returns Number rounded to Count decimal places. If Count is omitted or zero, the function rounds to the nearest integer. If Ccunt is negative, the function rounds to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, etc.

This function rounds to the nearest number. See ROUNDDOWN and ROUNDUP for alternatives.

Example

=ROUND(2.348;2) returns 2.35

=ROUND(-32.4834;3) returns -32.483. Change the cell format to see all decimals.

=ROUND(2.348;0) returns 2.

=ROUND(2.5) returns 3.

=ROUND(987.65;-2) returns 1000.

ROUNDDOWN

Rounds a number down, toward zero, to a certain precision.

Syntax

ROUNDDOWN(Number; Count)

Returns Number rounded down (towards zero) to Count decimal places. If Count is omitted or zero, the function rounds down to an integer. If Count is negative, the function rounds down to the next 10, 100, 1000, etc.

This function rounds towards zero. See ROUNDUP and ROUND for alternatives.

Example

=ROUNDDOWN(1.234;2) returns 1.23.

=ROUNDDOWN(45.67;0) returns 45.

=ROUNDDOWN(-45.67) returns -45.

=ROUNDDOWN(987.65;-2) returns 900.

ROUNDUP

Rounds a number up, away from zero, to a certain precision.

Syntax

ROUNDUP(Number; Count)

Returns Number rounded up (away from zero) to Count decimal places. If Count is omitted or zero, the function rounds up to an integer. If Count is negative, the function rounds up to the next 10, 100, 1000, etc.

This function rounds away from zero. See ROUNDDOWN and ROUND for alternatives.

Example

=ROUNDUP(1.1111;2) returns 1.12.

=ROUNDUP(1.2345;1) returns 1.3.

=ROUNDUP(45.67;0) returns 46.

=ROUNDUP(-45.67) returns -46.

=ROUNDUP(987.65;-2) returns 1000.

SIN

Returns the sine of the given angle (in radians).

Syntax

SIN(Number)

Returns the (trigonometric) sine of Number, the angle in radians.

To return the sine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.

Example

=SIN(PI()/2) returns 1, the sine of PI/2 radians.

=SIN(RADIANS(30)) returns 0.5, the sine of 30 degrees.

SINH

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.

Syntax

SINH(Number)

Returns the hyperbolic sine of Number.

Example

=SINH(0) returns 0, the hyperbolic sine of 0.

SUM

Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.

Syntax

SUM(Number1; Number2; ...; Number30)

Number 1 to Number 30 are up to 30 arguments whose sum is to be calculated.

Example

If you enter the numbers 2; 3 and 4 in the Number 1; 2 and 3 text boxes, 9 will be returned as the result.

=SUM(A1;A3;B5) calculates the sum of the three cells. =SUM (A1:E10) calculates the sum of all cells in the A1 to E10 cell range.

Conditions linked by AND can be used with the function SUM() in the following manner:

Example assumption: You have entered invoices into a table. Column A contains the date value of the invoice, column B the amounts. You want to find a formula that you can use to return the total of all amounts only for a specific month, e.g. only the amount for the period >=2008-01-01 to <2008-02-01. The range with the date values covers A1:A40, the range containing the amounts to be totaled is B1:B40. C1 contains the start date, 2008 -01-01, of the invoices to be included and C2 the date, 2008 -02-01, that is no longer included.

Enter the following formula as an array formula:

=SUM((A1:A40>=C1)*(A1:A40<C2)*B1:B40)

In order to enter this as an array formula, you must press the Shift+ Ctrl+ Enter keys instead of simply pressing the Enter key to close the formula. The formula will then be shown in the Formula bar enclosed in braces.

{=SUM((A1:A40>=C1)*(A1:A40<C2)*B1:B40)}

The formula is based on the fact that the result of a comparison is 1 if the criterion is met and 0 if it is not met. The individual comparison results will be treated as an array and used in matrix multiplication, and at the end the individual values will be totaled to give the result matrix.

SUMIF

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. This function is used to browse a range when you search for a certain value.

The search supports regular expressions. You can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters. If you want to search for a text that is also a regular expression, you must precede every character with a \ character. You can switch the automatic evaluation of regular expression on and off in Tools - Options - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - Calculate.

Syntax

SUMIF(Range; Criteria; SumRange)

Range is the range to which the criteria are to be applied.

Criteria is the cell in which the search criterion is shown, or the search criterion itself. If the criteria is written into the formula, it has to be surrounded by double quotes.

SumRange is the range from which values are summed. If this parameter has not been indicated, the values found in the Range are summed.

Note Icon SUMIF supports the reference concatenation operator (~) only in the Criteria parameter, and only if the optional SumRange parameter is not given.

Example

To sum up only negative numbers: =SUMIF(A1:A10;"<0")

=SUMIF(A1:A10;">0";B1:10) - sums values from the range B1:B10 only if the corresponding values in the range A1:A10 are >0.

See COUNTIF() for some more syntax examples that can be used with SUMIF().

TAN

Returns the tangent of the given angle (in radians).

Syntax

TAN(Number)

Returns the (trigonometric) tangent of Number, the angle in radians.

To return the tangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function.

Example

=TAN(PI()/4) returns 1, the tangent of PI/4 radians.

=TAN(RADIANS(45)) returns 1, the tangent of 45 degrees.

TANH

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.

Syntax

TANH(Number)

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of Number.

Example

=TANH(0) returns 0, the hyperbolic tangent of 0.

SUBTOTAL

Calculates subtotals. If a range already contains subtotals, these are not used for further calculations. Use this function with the instant filters to take only the filtered records into account.

Syntax

SUBTOTAL(Function; Range)

Function is a number that stands for one of the following functions:

Table 34. Function indexes and corresponding functions
Function Index Function
1 AVERAGE
2 COUNT
3 COUNTA
4 MAX
5 MIN
6 PRODUCT
7 STDEV
8 STDEVP
9 SUM
10 VAR
11 VARP

Range is the range whose cells are included.

Example

You have a table in the cell range A1:B5 containing cities in column A and accompanying figures in column B. You have used an Instant Filter so that you only see rows containing the city Hamburg. You want to see the sum of the figures that are displayed; that is, just the subtotal for the filtered rows. In this case the correct formula would be:

=SUBTOTAL(9;B2:B5)

CONVERT

Converts old European national currency to and from Euros.

Syntax

CONVERT(Value; "Currency1"; "Currency2")

Value is the amount of the currency to be converted.

Currency1 and Currency2 are the currency units to convert from and to respectively. These must be text, the official abbreviation for the currency (for example, "EUR"). The rates (shown per Euro) were set by the European Commission.

Either Currency1 or Currency2 must be specified as Euros.

Examples

=CONVERT(100;"ATS";"EUR") converts 100 Austrian Schillings into Euros.

=CONVERT(100;"EUR";"DEM") converts 100 Euros into German Marks.

ODD

Rounds a positive number up to the nearest odd integer and a negative number down to the nearest odd integer.

Syntax

ODD(Number)

Returns Number rounded to the next odd integer up, away from zero.

Example

=ODD(1.2) returns 3.

=ODD(1) returns 1.

=ODD(0) returns 1.

=ODD(-3.1) returns -5.

FLOOR

Rounds a number down to the nearest multiple of Significance.

Syntax

FLOOR(Number; Significance; Mode)

Number is the number that is to be rounded down.

Significance is the value to whose multiple the number is to be rounded down.

Mode is an optional value. If the Mode value is given and not equal to zero, and if Number and Significance are negative, then rounding is done based on the absolute value of the number. This parameter is ignored when exporting to MS Excel as Excel does not know any third parameter.

Warning Icon If both parameters Number and Significance are negative, and if the Mode value is equal to zero or is not specified, then the results in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets and Excel will differ after exporting. If you export the spreadsheet to Excel, use Mode=1 to see the same results in Excel as in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Example

=FLOOR( -11;-2) returns -12

=FLOOR( -11;-2;0) returns -12

=FLOOR( -11;-2;1) returns -10

SIGN

Returns the sign of a number. Returns 1 if the number is positive, -1 if negative and 0 if zero.

Syntax

SIGN(Number)

Number is the number whose sign is to be determined.

Example

=SIGN(3.4) returns 1.

=SIGN(-4.5) returns -1.

MROUND

Returns a number rounded to the nearest multiple of another number.

Syntax

MROUND(Number; Multiple)

Returns Number rounded to the nearest multiple of Multiple.

An alternative implementation would be Multiple * ROUND(Number/Multiple).

Example

=MROUND(15.5;3) returns 15, as 15.5 is closer to 15 (= 3*5) than to 18 (= 3*6).

=MROUND(1.4;0.5) returns 1.5 (= 0.5*3).

SQRT

Returns the positive square root of a number.

Syntax

SQRT(Number)

Returns the positive square root of Number.

Number must be positive.

Example

=SQRT(16) returns 4.

=SQRT(-16) returns an invalid argument error.

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of (PI times a number).

Syntax

SQRTPI(Number)

Returns the positive square root of (PI multiplied by Number).

This is equivalent to SQRT(PI()*Number).

Example

=SQRTPI(2) returns the squareroot of (2PI), approximately 2.506628.

RANDBETWEEN

Returns an integer random number in a specified range.

Syntax

RANDBETWEEN(Bottom; Top)

Returns an integer random number between integers Bottom and Top (both inclusive).

This function produces a new random number each time Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets recalculates. To force Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets to recalculate manually press Shift+Ctrl+F9.

To generate random numbers which never recalculate, copy cells containing this function, and use Edit - Paste Special (with Paste All and Formulas not marked and Numbers marked).

Example

=RANDBETWEEN(20;30) returns an integer of between 20 and 30.

RAND

Returns a random number between 0 and 1.

Syntax

RAND()

This function produces a new random number each time Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets recalculates. To force Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets to recalculate manually press Shift+Ctrl+F9.

To generate random numbers which never recalculate, copy cells each containing =RAND(), and use Edit - Paste Special (with Paste All and Formulas not marked and Numbers marked).

Example

=RAND() returns a random number between 0 and 1.

COUNTIF

Returns the number of cells that meet with certain criteria within a cell range.

The search supports regular expressions. You can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters. If you want to search for a text that is also a regular expression, you must precede every character with a \ character. You can switch the automatic evaluation of regular expression on and off in Tools - Options - Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets - Calculate.

Syntax

COUNTIF(Range; Criteria)

Range is the range to which the criteria are to be applied.

Criteria indicates the criteria in the form of a number, an expression or a character string. These criteria determine which cells are counted. You may also enter a search text in the form of a regular expression, e.g. b.* for all words that begin with b. You may also indicate a cell range that contains the search criterion. If you search for literal text, enclose the text in double quotes.

Example

A1:A10 is a cell range containing the numbers 2000 to 2009. Cell B1 contains the number 2006. In cell B2, you enter a formula:

=COUNTIF(A1:A10;2006) - this returns 1

=COUNTIF(A1:A10;B1) - this returns 1

=COUNTIF(A1:A10;">=2006") - this returns 3

=COUNTIF(A1:A10;"<"&B1) - when B1 contains 2006, this returns 6

=COUNTIF(A1:A10;C2) where cell C2 contains the text >2006 counts the number of cells in the range A1:A10 which are >2006

To count only negative numbers: =COUNTIF(A1:A10;"<0")

Array Functions

This category contains the array functions.

What is an Array?

An array is a linked range of cells on a spreadsheet containing values. A square range of 3 rows and 3 columns is a 3 x 3 array:

Table 35. A 3 x 3 array
  A B C
1 7 31 33
2 95 17 2
3 5 10 50

The smallest possible array is a 1 x 2 or 2 x 1 array with two adjacent cells.

What is an array formula?

A formula in which the individual values in a cell range are evaluated is referred to as an array formula. The difference between an array formula and other formulas is that the array formula deals with several values simultaneously instead of just one.

Not only can an array formula process several values, but it can also return several values. The results of an array formula is also an array.

To multiply the values in the individual cells by 10 in the above array, you do not need to apply a formula to each individual cell or value. Instead you just need to use a single array formula. Select a range of 3 x 3 cells on another part of the spreadsheet, enter the formula =10*A1:C3 and confirm this entry using the key combination Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The result is a 3 x 3 array in which the individual values in the cell range (A1:C3) are multiplied by a factor of 10.

In addition to multiplication, you can also use other operators on the reference range (an array). With Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets, you can add (+), subtract (-), multiply (*), divide (/), use exponents (^), concatenation (&) and comparisons (=, <>, <, >, <=, >=). The operators can be used on each individual value in the cell range and return the result as an array if the array formula was entered.

Comparison operators in an array formula treat empty cells in the same way as in a normal formula, that is, either as zero or as an empty string. For example, if cells A1 and A2 are empty the array formulas {=A1:A2=""} and {=A1:A2=0} will both return a 1 column 2 row array of cells containing TRUE.

When do you use array formulas?

Use array formulas if you have to repeat calculations using different values. If you decide to change the calculation method later, you only have to update the array formula. To add an array formula, select the entire array range and then make the required change to the array formula.

Array formulas are also a space saving option when several values must be calculated, since they are not very memory-intensive. In addition, arrays are an essential tool for carrying out complex calculations, because you can have several cell ranges included in your calculations. Lotus Symphony has different math functions for arrays, such as the MMULT function for multiplying two arrays or the SUMPRODUCT function for calculating the scalar products of two arrays.

Using Array Formulas in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

You can also create a "normal" formula in which the reference range, such as parameters, indicate an array formula. The result is obtained from the intersection of the reference range and the rows or columns in which the formula is found. If there is no intersection or if the range at the intersection covers several rows or columns, a #VALUE! error message appears. The following example illustrates this concept:

Creating Array Formulas

If you create an array formula using the Function Wizard, you must mark the Array check box each time so that the results are returned in an array. Otherwise, only the value in the upper-left cell of the array being calculated is returned.

If you enter the array formula directly into the cell, you must use the key combination Shift+Ctrl+Enter instead of the Enter key. Only then does the formula become an array formula.

Note Icon Array formulas appear in braces in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets. You cannot create array formulas by manually entering the braces.

The cells in a results array are automatically protected against changes. However, you can edit or copy the array formula by selecting the entire array cell range.

Using Inline Array Constants in Formulas

Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets supports inline matrix/array constants in formulas. An inline array is surrounded by curly braces '{' and '}'. Elements can be each a number (including negatives), a logical constant (TRUE, FALSE), or a literal string. Non-constant expressions are not allowed. Arrays can be entered with one or more rows, and one or more columns. All rows must consist of the same number of elements, all columns must consist of the same number of elements.

The column separator (separating elements in one row) is the ';' semicolon. The row separator is a '|' pipe symbol. The separators are not language and locale dependent.

Arrays can not be nested.

Examples:

={1;2;3}

An array with one row consisting of the three numbers 1, 2, and 3.

To enter this array constant, you select three cells in a row, then you type the formula ={1;2;3} using the curly braces and the semicolons, then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

={1;2;3|4;5;6}

An array with two rows and three values in each row.

={0;1;2|FALSE;TRUE;"two"}

A mixed data array.

=SIN({1;2;3})

Entered as a matrix formula, delivers the result of three SIN calculations with the arguments 1, 2, and 3.

Editing Array Formulas

  1. Select the cell range or array containing the array formula. To select the whole array, position the cell cursor inside the array range, then press Ctrl + /, where / is the Division key on the numeric keypad.

  2. Either press F2 or position the cursor in the input line. Both of these actions let you edit the formula.

  3. After you have made changes, press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.

Tip Icon You can format the separate parts of an array. For example, you can change the font color. Select a cell range and then change the attribute you want.

Copying Array Formulas

  1. Select the cell range or array containing the array formula.

  2. Either press F2 or position the cursor in the input line.

  3. Copy the formula into the input line by pressing Ctrl+C.

  4. Select a range of cells where you want to insert the array formula and either press F2 or position the cursor in the input line.

  5. Paste the formula by pressing Ctrl+V in the selected space and confirm it by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Enter. The selected range now contains the array formula.

Adjusting an Array Range

If you want to edit the output array, do the following:

  1. Select the cell range or array containing the array formula.

  2. Below the selection, to the right, you will see a small icon with which you can zoom in or out on the range using your mouse.

Note Icon When you adjust the array range, the array formula will not automatically be adjusted. You are only changing the range in which the result will appear.

By holding down the Ctrl key, you can create a copy of the array formula in the given range.

Conditional Array Calculations

A conditional array calculation is an array or matrix formula that includes an IF() or CHOOSE() function. The condition argument in the formula is an area reference or a matrix result.

In the following example, the >0 test of the {=IF(A1:A3>0;"yes";"no")} formula is applied to each cell in the range A1:A3 and the result is copied to the corresponding cell.

Table 36. Example of a conditional array calculation
  A B (formula) B (result)
1 1 {=IF(A1:A3>0;"yes";"no")} yes
2 0 {=IF(A1:A3>0;"yes";"no")} no
3 1 {=IF(A1:A3>0;"yes";"no")} yes

The following functions provide forced array handling: CORREL, COVAR, FORECAST, FTEST, INTERCEPT, MDETERM, MINVERSE, MMULT, MODE, PEARSON, PROB, RSQ, SLOPE, STEYX, SUMPRODUCT, SUMX2MY2, SUMX2PY2, SUMXMY2, TTEST. If you use area references as arguments when you call one of these functions, the functions behave as array functions. The following table provides an example of forced array handling:

Table 37. Example of forced array handling
  A B (formula) B (result) C (forced array formula) C (result)
1 1 =A1:A2+1 2 =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A2+1) 5
2 2 =A1:A2+1 3 =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A2+1) 5
3   =A1:A2+1 #VALUE! =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A2+1) 5

MUNIT

Returns the unitary square array of a certain size. The unitary array is a square array where the main diagonal elements equal 1 and all other array elements are equal to 0.

Syntax

MUNIT(Dimensions)

Dimensions refers to the size of the array unit.

Note Icon You can find a general introduction to Array functions at the top of this page.

Example

Select a square range within the spreadsheet, for example, from A1 to E5.

Without deselecting the range, select the MUNIT function. Mark the Array check box. Enter the desired dimensions for the array unit, in this case 5, and click OK.

You can also enter the =Munit(5) formula in the last cell of the selected range (E5), and press Shift+Ctrl+Enter.

You now see a unit array with a range of A1:E5.

More explanations on top of this page.

FREQUENCY

Indicates the frequency distribution in a one-column-array. The function counts the number of values in the Data array that are within the values given by the Classes array.

Syntax

FREQUENCY(Data; Classes)

Data represents the reference to the values to be counted.

Classes represents the array of the limit values.

Note Icon You can find a general introduction to Array functions at the top of this page.

Example

In the following table, column A lists unsorted measurement values. Column B contains the upper limit you entered for the classes into which you want to divide the data in column A. According to the limit entered in B1, the FREQUENCY function returns the number of measured values less than or equal to 5. As the limit in B2 is 10, the FREQUENCY function returns the second result as the number of measured values that are greater than 5 and less than or equal to 10. The text you entered in B6, ">25", is only for reference purposes.

Table 38. FREQUENCY function example
  A B C
1 12 5 1
2 8 10 3
3 24 15 2
4 11 20 3
5 5 25 1
6 20 >25 1
7 16    
8 9    
9 7    
10 16    
11 33    

Select a single column range in which to enter the frequency according to the class limits. You must select one field more than the class ceiling. In this example, select the range C1:C6. Call up the FREQUENCY function in the Function Wizard. Select the Data range in (A1:A11), and then the Classes range in which you entered the class limits (B1:B6). Select the Array check box and click OK. You will see the frequency count in the range C1:C6.

More explanations on top of this page.

MDETERM

Returns the array determinant of an array. This function returns a value in the current cell; it is not necessary to define a range for the results.

Syntax

MDETERM(Array)

Array represents a square array in which the determinants are defined.

Note Icon You can find a general introduction to using Array functions on top of this page.

More explanations on top of this page.

MINVERSE

Returns the inverse array.

Syntax

MINVERSE(Array)

Array represents a square array that is to be inverted.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

Select a square range and select MINVERSE. Select the output array, select the Array field and click OK.

MMULT

Calculates the array product of two arrays. The number of columns for array 1 must match the number of rows for array 2. The square array has an equal number of rows and columns.

Syntax

MMULT(Array; Array)

Array at first place represents the first array used in the array product.

Array at second place represents the second array with the same number of rows.

Note Icon More explanations on top of this page.

Example

Select a square range. Choose the MMULT function. Select the first Array, then select the second Array. Using Function Wizard, mark the Array check box. Click OK. The output array will appear in the first selected range.

TRANSPOSE

Transposes the rows and columns of an array.

Syntax

TRANSPOSE(Array)

Array represents the array in the spreadsheet that is to be transposed.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

In the spreadsheet, select the range in which the transposed array can appear. If the original array has n rows and m columns, your selected range must have at least m rows and n columns. Then enter the formula directly, select the original array and press Shift+Ctrl+Enter. Or, if you are using the Function Wizard, mark the Array check box. The transposed array appears in the selected target range and is protected automatically against changes.

LINEST

Returns a table of statistics for a straight line that best fits a data set.

Syntax

LINEST(data_Y; data_X; linearType; stats)

data_Y is a single row or column range specifying the y coordinates in a set of data points.

data_X is a corresponding single row or column range specifying the x coordinates. If data_X is omitted it defaults to 1, 2, 3, ..., n. If there is more than one set of variables data_X may be a range with corresponding multiple rows or columns.

LINEST finds a straight line y = a + bx that best fits the data, using linear regression (the "least squares" method). With more than one set of variables the straight line is of the form y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 ... + bnxn.

if linearType is FALSE the straight line found is forced to pass through the origin (the constant a is zero; y = bx). If omitted, linearType defaults to TRUE (the line is not forced through the origin).

if stats is omitted or FALSE only the top line of the statistics table is returned. If TRUE the entire table is returned.

LINEST returns a table (array) of statistics as below and must be entered as an array formula (for example by using Ctrl+Shift+Return rather than just Return).

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

This function returns an array and is handled in the same way as the other array functions. Select a range for the answers and then the function. Select data_Y. If you want, you can enter other parameters. Select Array and click OK.

The results returned by the system (if stats = 0), will at least show the slope of the regression line and its intersection with the Y axis. If stats does not equal 0, other results are to be displayed.

Other LINEST Results:

Examine the following examples:

Table 39. LINEST function examples
  A B C D E F G
1 x1 x2 y   LIN EST value    
2 4 7 100   4,17 3,48 82,33
3 5 9 105   5,46 10,96 9,35
4 6 11 104   0,87 5,06 #NA
5 7 12 108   13,21 4 #NA
6 8 15 111   675,45 102,26 #NA
7 9 17 120        
8 10 19 133        

Column A contains several X1 values, column B several X2 values and column C the Y values. You have already entered these values in your spreadsheet. You have now set up E2:G6 in the spreadsheet and activated the Function Wizard. For the LINEST function to work, you must have marked the Array check box in the Function Wizard. Next, select the following values in the spreadsheet (or enter them using the keyboard):

data_Y is C2:C8

data_X is A2:B8

linearType and stats are both set to 1.

As soon as you click OK, Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets will fill the above example with the LINEST values as shown in the example.

The formula in the Formula Bar corresponds to each cell of the LINEST array {=LINEST(C2:C8;A2:B8;1;1)}

This represents the calculated LINEST values:

E2 and F2: Slope m of the regression line y=b+m*x for the x1 and x2 values. The values are given in reverse order; that is, the slope for x2 in E2 and the slope for x1 in F2.

G2: Intersection b with the y axis.

E3 and F3: The standard error of the slope value.

G3: The standard error of the intercept

E4: RSQ

F4: The standard error of the regression calculated for the Y value.

E5: The F value from the variance analysis.

F5: The degrees of freedom from the variance analysis.

E6: The sum of the squared deviation of the estimated Y values from their linear mean.

F6: The sum of the squared deviation of the estimated Y value from the given Y values.

More explanations on top of this page.

LOGEST

This function calculates the adjustment of the entered data as an exponential regression curve (y=b*m^x).

Syntax

LOGEST(DataY; DataX; FunctionType; Stats)

DataY represents the Y Data array.

DataX (optional) represents the X Data array.

FunctionType (optional). If Function_Type = 0, functions in the form y = m^x will be calculated. Otherwise, y = b*m^x functions will be calculated.

Stats (optional). If Stats=0, only the regression coefficient is calculated.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

See LINEST. However, no square sum will be returned.

SUMPRODUCT

Multiplies corresponding elements in the given arrays, and returns the sum of those products.

Syntax

SUMPRODUCT(Array1; Array2...Array30)

Array1, Array2...Array30 represent arrays whose corresponding elements are to be multiplied.

At least one array must be part of the argument list. If only one array is given, all array elements are summed.

Example

Table 40. SUMPRODUCT example
  A B C D
1 2 3 4 5
2 6 7 8 9
3 10 11 12 13

=SUMPRODUCT(A1:B3;C1:D3) returns 397.

Calculation: A1*C1 + B1*D1 + A2*C2 + B2*D2 + A3*C3 + B3*D3

You can use SUMPRODUCT to calculate the scalar product of two vectors.

Note Icon SUMPRODUCT returns a single number, it is not necessary to enter the function as an array function.

More explanations on top of this page.

SUMX2MY2

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

Syntax

SUMX2MY2(ArrayX; ArrayY)

ArrayX represents the first array whose elements are to be squared and added.

ArrayY represents the second array whose elements are to be squared and subtracted.

More explanations on top of this page.

SUMX2PY2

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

Syntax

SUMX2PY2(ArrayX; ArrayY)

ArrayX represents the first array whose arguments are to be squared and added.

ArrayY represents the second array, whose elements are to be added and squared.

More explanations on top of this page.

SUMXMY2

Adds the squares of the variance between corresponding values in two arrays.

Syntax

SUMXMY2(ArrayX; ArrayY)

ArrayX represents the first array whose elements are to be subtracted and squared.

ArrayY represents the second array, whose elements are to be subtracted and squared.

More explanations on top of this page.

TREND

Returns values along a linear trend.

Syntax

TREND(DataY; DataX; NewDataX; LinearType)

DataY represents the Y Data array.

DataX (optional) represents the X Data array.

NewDataX (optional) represents the array of the X data, which are used for recalculating values.

LinearType(Optional). If LinearType = 0, then lines will be calculated through the zero point. Otherwise, offset lines will also be calculated. The default is LinearType <> 0.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

Select a spreadsheet range in which the trend data will appear. Select the function. Enter the output data or select it with the mouse. Mark the Array field. click OK. The trend data calculated from the output data is displayed.

GROWTH

Calculates the points of an exponential trend in an array.

Syntax

GROWTH(DataY; DataX; NewDataX; FunctionType)

DataY represents the Y Data array.

DataX (optional) represents the X Data array.

NewDataX (optional) represents the X data array, in which the values are recalculated.

FunctionType(optional). If FunctionType = 0, functions in the form y = m^x will be calculated. Otherwise, y = b*m^x functions will be calculated.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

More explanations on top of this page.

Example

This function returns an array and is handled in the same way as the other array functions. Select a range where you want the answers to appear and select the function. Select DataY. Enter any other parameters, mark Array and click OK.

Statistics Functions

This category contains the Statistics functions.

To access this command...

Create - Function - Category Statistical

Some of the examples use the following data table:

Table 41. Data table for statistics function examples
  C D
2 x value y value
3 -5 -3
4 -2 0
5 -1 1
6 0 3
7 2 4
8 4 6
9 6 8

Statistical Functions Part One

INTERCEPT

Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-values by using known x-values and y-values.

Syntax

INTERCEPT(DataY; DataX)

DataY is the dependent set of observations or data.

DataX is the independent set of observations or data.

Names, arrays or references containing numbers must be used here. Numbers can also be entered directly.

Example

To calculate the intercept, use cells D3:D9 as the y value and C3:C9 as the x value from the example spreadsheet. Input will be as follows:

=INTERCEPT(D3:D9;C3:C9) = 2.15.

COUNT

Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. Text entries are ignored.

Syntax

COUNT(Value1; Value2; ... Value30)

Value1; Value2, ... are 1 to 30 values or ranges representing the values to be counted.

Example

The entries 2, 4, 6 and eight in the Value 1-4 fields are to be counted.

=COUNT(2;4;6;"eight") = 3. The count of numbers is therefore 3.

COUNTA

Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. Text entries are also counted, even when they contain an empty string of length 0. If an argument is an array or reference, empty cells within the array or reference are ignored.

Syntax

COUNTA(Value1; Value2; ... Value30)

Value1; Value2, ... are 1 to 30 arguments representing the values to be counted.

Example

The entries 2, 4, 6 and eight in the Value 1-4 fields are to be counted.

=COUNTA(2;4;6;"eight") = 4. The count of values is therefore 4.

B

Returns the probability of a sample with binomial distribution.

Syntax

B(Trials; SP; T1; T2)

Trials is the number of independent trials.

SP is the probability of success on each trial.

T1 defines the lower limit for the number of trials.

T2 (optional) defines the upper limit for the number of trials.

Example

What is the probability with ten throws of the dice, that a six will come up exactly twice? The probability of a six (or any other number) is 1/6. The following formula combines these factors:

=B(10;1/6;2) returns a probability of 29%.

RSQ

Returns the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient based on the given values. RSQ (also called determination coefficient) is a measure for the accuracy of an adjustment and can be used to produce a regression analysis.

Syntax

RSQ(DataY; DataX)

DataY is an array or range of data points.

DataX is an array or range of data points.

Example

=RSQ(A1:A20;B1:B20) calculates the correlation coefficient for both data sets in columns A and B.

BETAINV

Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function.

Syntax

BETAINV(Number; Alpha; Beta; Start; End)

Number is the value between Start and End at which to evaluate the function.

Alpha is a parameter to the distribution.

Beta is a parameter to the distribution.

Start (optional) is the lower bound for Number.

End (optional) is the upper bound for Number.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

=BETAINV(0.5;5;10) returns the value 0.33.

BETADIST

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.

Syntax

BETADIST(Number; Alpha; Beta; Start; End)

Number is the value between Start and End at which to evaluate the function.

Alpha is a parameter to the distribution.

Beta is a parameter to the distribution.

Start (optional) is the lower bound for Number.

End (optional) is the upper bound for Number.

In the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets functions, parameters marked as "optional" can be left out only when no parameter follows. For example, in a function with four parameters, where the last two parameters are marked as "optional", you can leave out parameter 4 or parameters 3 and 4, but you cannot leave out parameter 3 alone.

Example

=BETADIST(0.75;3;4) returns the value 0.96

BINOMDIST

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

Syntax

BINOMDIST(X; Trials; SP; C)

X is the number of successes in a set of trials.

Trials is the number of independent trials.

SP is the probability of success on each trial.

C = 0 calculates the probability of a single event and C = 1 calculates the cumulative probability.

Example

=BINOMDIST(A1;12;0.5;0) shows (if the values 0 to 12 are entered in A1) the probabilities for 12 flips of a coin that Heads will come up exactly the number of times entered in A1.

=BINOMDIST(A1;12;0.5;1) shows the cumulative probabilities for the same series. For example, if A1 = 4, the cumulative probability of the series is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 times Heads (non-exclusive OR).

CHIINV

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

Syntax

CHIINV(Number; DegreesFreedom)

Number is the value of the error probability.

DegreesFreedom is the degrees of freedom of the experiment.

Example

A die is thrown 1020 times. The numbers on the die 1 through 6 come up 195, 151, 148, 189, 183 and 154 times (observation values). The hypothesis that the die is not fixed is to be tested.

The Chi square distribution of the random sample is determined by the formula given above. Since the expected value for a given number on the die for n throws is n times 1/6, thus 1020/6 = 170, the formula returns a Chi square value of 13.27.

If the (observed) Chi square is greater than or equal to the (theoretical) Chi square CHIINV, the hypothesis will be discarded, since the deviation between theory and experiment is too great. If the observed Chi square is less that CHIINV, the hypothesis is confirmed with the indicated probability of error.

=CHIINV(0.05;5) returns 11.07.

=CHIINV(0.02;5) returns 13.39.

If the probability of error is 5%, the die is not true. If the probability of error is 2%, there is no reason to believe it is fixed.

CHITEST

Returns the probability of a deviance from a random distribution of two test series based on the chi-squared test for independence. CHITEST returns the chi-squared distribution of the data.

The probability determined by CHITEST can also be determined with CHIDIST, in which case the Chi square of the random sample must then be passed as a parameter instead of the data row.

Syntax

CHITEST(DataB; DataE)

DataB is the array of the observations.

DataE is the range of the expected values.

Example

Table 42. CHITEST example
  Data_B (observed) Data_E (expected)
1 195 170
2 151 170
3 148 170
4 189 170
5 183 170
6 154 170

=CHITEST(A1:A6;B1:B6) equals 0.02. This is the probability which suffices the observed data of the theoretical Chi-square distribution.

CHIDIST

Returns the probability value from the indicated Chi square that a hypothesis is confirmed. CHIDIST compares the Chi square value to be given for a random sample that is calculated from the sum of (observed value-expected value)^2/expected value for all values with the theoretical Chi square distribution and determines from this the probability of error for the hypothesis to be tested.

The probability determined by CHIDIST can also be determined by CHITEST.

Syntax

CHIDIST(Number; DegreesFreedom)

Number is the chi-square value of the random sample used to determine the error probability.

DegreesFreedom are the degrees of freedom of the experiment.

Example

=CHIDIST(13.27; 5) equals 0.02.

If the Chi square value of the random sample is 13.27 and if the experiment has 5 degrees of freedom, then the hypothesis is assured with a probability of error of 2%.

EXPONDIST

Returns the exponential distribution.

Syntax

EXPONDIST(Number; Lambda; C)

Number is the value of the function.

Lambda is the parameter value.

C is a logical value that determines the form of the function. C = 0 calculates the density function, and C = 1 calculates the distribution.

Example

=EXPONDIST(3;0.5;1) returns 0.78.

Statistical Functions Part Two

FINV

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. The F distribution is used for F tests in order to set the relation between two differing data sets.

Syntax

FINV(Number; DegreesFreedom1; DegreesFreedom2)

Number is probability value for which the inverse F distribution is to be calculated.

DegreesFreedom1 is the number of degrees of freedom in the numerator of the F distribution.

DegreesFreedom2 is the number of degrees of freedom in the denominator of the F distribution.

Example

=FINV(0.5;5;10) yields 0.93.

FISHER

Returns the Fisher transformation for x and creates a function close to a normal distribution.

Syntax

FISHER(Number)

Number is the value to be transformed.

Example

=FISHER(0.5) yields 0.55.

FISHERINV

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation for x and creates a function close to a normal distribution.

Syntax

FISHERINV(Number)

Number is the value that is to undergo reverse-transformation.

Example

=FISHERINV(0.5) yields 0.46.

FTEST

Returns the result of an F test.

Syntax

FTEST(Data1; Data2)

Data1 is the first record array.

Data2 is the second record array.

Example

=FTEST(A1:A30;B1:B12) calculates whether the two data sets are different in their variance and returns the probability that both sets could have come from the same total population.

FDIST

Calculates the values of an F distribution.

Syntax

FDIST(Number; DegreesFreedom1; DegreesFreedom2)

Number is the value for which the F distribution is to be calculated.

degreesFreedom1 is the degrees of freedom in the numerator in the F distribution.

degreesFreedom2 is the degrees of freedom in the denominator in the F distribution.

Example

=FDIST(0.8;8;12) yields 0.61.

GAMMAINV

Returns the inverse of the Gamma cumulative distribution. This function allows you to search for variables with different distribution.

Syntax

GAMMAINV(Number; Alpha; Beta)

Number is the probability value for which the inverse Gamma distribution is to be calculated.

Alpha is the parameter Alpha of the Gamma distribution.

Beta is the parameter Beta of the Gamma distribution.

Example

=GAMMAINV(0.8;1;1) yields 1.61.

GAMMALN

Returns the natural logarithm of the Gamma function: G(x).

Syntax

GAMMALN(Number)

Number is the value for which the natural logarithm of the Gamma function is to be calculated.

Example

=GAMMALN(2) yields 0.

GAMMADIST

Returns the values of a Gamma distribution.

Syntax

GAMMADIST(Number; Alpha; Beta; C)

Number is the value for which the Gamma distribution is to be calculated.

Alpha is the parameter Alpha of the Gamma distribution.

Beta is the parameter Beta of the Gamma distribution

C = 0 calculates the density function C = 1 the distribution.

Example

=GAMMADIST(2;1;1;1) yields 0.86.

GAUSS

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.

It is GAUSS(x)=NORMSDIST(x)-0.5

Syntax

GAUSS(Number)

Number is the value for which the value of the standard normal distribution is to be calculated.

Example

=GAUSS(0.19) = 0.08

=GAUSS(0.0375) = 0.01

GEOMEAN

Returns the geometric mean of a sample.

Syntax

GEOMEAN(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2,...Number30 are numeric arguments or ranges that represent a random sample.

Example

=GEOMEAN(23;46;69) = 41.79. The geometric mean value of this random sample is therefore 41.79.

TRIMMEAN

Returns the mean of a data set without the Alpha percent of data at the margins.

Syntax

TRIMMEAN(Data; Alpha)

Data is the array of data in the sample.

Alpha is the percentage of the marginal data that will not be taken into consideration.

Example

=TRIMMEAN(A1:A50; 0.1) calculates the mean value of numbers in A1:A50, without taking into consideration the 5 percent of the values representing the highest values and the 5 percent of the values representing the lowest ones. The percentage numbers refer to the amount of the untrimmed mean value, not to the number of summands.

ZTEST

Returns the two-tailed P value of a z test with standard distribution.

Syntax

ZTEST(Data; Number; Sigma)

Data is the array of the data.

Number is the value to be tested.

Sigma (optional) is the standard deviation of the total population. If this argument is missing, the standard deviation of the sample in question will be processed.

Example

=ZTEST(A1:A50;12) yields the probability that value 12 belongs to the standard distribution of the total population of data in A1:A50.

HARMEAN

Returns the harmonic mean of a data set.

Syntax

HARMEAN(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1,Number2,...Number30 are up to 30 values or ranges, that can be used to calculate the harmonic mean.

Example

=HARMEAN(23;46;69) = 37.64. The harmonic mean of this random sample is thus 37.64

HYPGEOMDIST

Returns the hypergeometric distribution.

Syntax

HYPGEOMDIST(X; NSample; Successes; NPopulation)

X is the number of results achieved in the random sample.

NSample is the size of the random sample.

Successes is the number of possible results in the total population.

NPopulation is the size of the total population.

Example

=HYPGEOMDIST(2;2;90;100) yields 0.81. If 90 out of 100 pieces of buttered toast fall from the table and hit the floor with the buttered side first, then if 2 pieces of buttered toast are dropped from the table, the probability is 81%, that both will strike buttered side first.

Statistical Functions Part Three

LARGE

Returns the Rank_c-th largest value in a data set.

Syntax

LARGE(Data; RankC)

Data is the cell range of data.

RankC is the ranking of the value.

Example

=LARGE(A1:C50;2) gives the second largest value in A1:C50.

SMALL

Returns the Rank_c-th smallest value in a data set.

Syntax

SMALL(Data; RankC)

Data is the cell range of data.

RankC is the rank of the value.

Example

=SMALL(A1:C50;2) gives the second smallest value in A1:C50.

CONFIDENCE

Returns the (1-alpha) confidence interval for a normal distribution.

Syntax

CONFIDENCE(Alpha; StDev; Size)

Alpha is the level of the confidence interval.

StDev is the standard deviation for the total population.

Size is the size of the total population.

Example

=CONFIDENCE(0.05;1.5;100) gives 0.29.

CORREL

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets.

Syntax

CORREL(Data1; Data2)

Data1 is the first data set.

Data2 is the second data set.

Example

=CORREL(A1:A50;B1:B50) calculates the correlation coefficient as a measure of the linear correlation of the two data sets.

COVAR

Returns the covariance of the product of paired deviations.

Syntax

COVAR(Data1; Data2)

Data1 is the first data set.

Data2 is the second data set.

Example

=COVAR(A1:A30;B1:B30)

CRITBINOM

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.

Syntax

CRITBINOM(Trials; SP; Alpha)

Trials is the total number of trials.

SP is the probability of success for one trial.

Alpha is the threshold probability to be reached or exceeded.

Example

=CRITBINOM(100;0.5;0.1) yields 44.

KURT

Returns the kurtosis of a data set (at least 4 values required).

Syntax

KURT(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1,Number2,...Number30 are numeric arguments or ranges representing a random sample of distribution.

Example

=KURT(A1;A2;A3;A4;A5;A6)

LOGINV

Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution.

Syntax

LOGINV(Number; Mean; StDev)

Number is the probability value for which the inverse standard logarithmic distribution is to be calculated.

Mean is the arithmetic mean of the standard logarithmic distribution.

StDev is the standard deviation of the standard logarithmic distribution.

Example

=LOGINV(0.05;0;1) returns 0.19.

LOGNORMDIST

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.

Syntax

LOGNORMDIST(Number; Mean; StDev)

Number is the probability value for which the standard logarithmic distribution is to be calculated.

Mean is the mean value of the standard logarithmic distribution.

StDev is the standard deviation of the standard logarithmic distribution.

Example

=LOGNORMDIST(0.1;0;1) returns 0.01.

Statistical Functions Part Four

MAX

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments.

Returns 0 if no numeric value and no error was encountered in the cell range(s) passed as cell reference(s). Text cells are ignored by MIN() and MAX(). The functions MINA() and MAXA() return 0 if no value (numeric or text) and no error was encountered. Passing a literal string argument to MIN() or MAX(), e.g. MIN("string"), still results in an error.

Syntax

MAX(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1; Number2;...Number30 are numerical values or ranges.

Example

=MAX(A1;A2;A3;50;100;200) returns the largest value from the list.

=MAX(A1:B100) returns the largest value from the list.

MAXA

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments. In opposite to MAX, here you can enter text. The value of the text is 0.

The functions MINA() and MAXA() return 0 if no value (numeric or text) and no error was encountered.

Syntax

MAXA(Value1; Value2; ... Value30)

Value1; Value2;...Value30 are values or ranges. Text has the value of 0.

Example

=MAXA(A1;A2;A3;50;100;200;"Text") returns the largest value from the list.

=MAXA(A1:B100) returns the largest value from the list.

MEDIAN

Returns the median of a set of numbers. In a set containing an uneven number of values, the median will be the number in the middle of the set and in a set containing an even number of values, it will be the mean of the two values in the middle of the set.

Syntax

MEDIAN(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1; Number2;...Number30 are values or ranges, which represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a reference.

Example

for an odd number: =MEDIAN(1;5;9;20;21) returns 9 as the median value.

for an even number: =MEDIAN(1;5;9;20) returns the average of the two middle values 5 and 9, thus 7.

MIN

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments.

Returns 0 if no numeric value and no error was encountered in the cell range(s) passed as cell reference(s). Text cells are ignored by MIN() and MAX(). The functions MINA() and MAXA() return 0 if no value (numeric or text) and no error was encountered. Passing a literal string argument to MIN() or MAX(), e.g. MIN("string"), still results in an error.

Syntax

MIN(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1; Number2;...Number30 are numerical values or ranges.

Example

=MIN(A1:B100) returns the smallest value in the list.

MINA

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. Here you can also enter text. The value of the text is 0.

The functions MINA() and MAXA() return 0 if no value (numeric or text) and no error was encountered.

Syntax

MINA(Value1; Value2; ... Value30)

Value1; Value2;...Value30 are values or ranges. Text has the value of 0.

Example

=MINA(1;"Text";20) returns 0.

=MINA(A1:B100) returns the smallest value in the list.

AVEDEV

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. Displays the diffusion in a data set.

Syntax

AVEDEV(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2,...Number 0 are values or ranges that represent a sample. Each number can also be replaced by a reference.

Example

=AVEDEV(A1:A50)

AVERAGE

Returns the average of the arguments.

Syntax

AVERAGE(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1; Number2;...Number 0 are numerical values or ranges.

Example

=AVERAGE(A1:A50)

AVERAGEA

Returns the average of the arguments. The value of a text is 0.

Syntax

AVERAGEA(Value1; Value2; ... Value30)

Value1; Value2;...Value30 are values or ranges. Text has the value of 0.

Example

=AVERAGEA(A1:A50)

MODE

Returns the most common value in a data set. If there are several values with the same frequency, it returns the smallest value. An error occurs when a value doesn't appear twice.

Syntax

MODE(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1; Number2;...Number30 are numerical values or ranges.

Example

=MODE(A1:A50)

NEGBINOMDIST

Returns the negative binomial distribution.

Syntax

NEGBINOMDIST(X; R; SP)

X represents the value returned for unsuccessful tests.

R represents the value returned for successful tests.

SP is the probability of the success of an attempt.

Example

=NEGBINOMDIST(1;1;0.5) returns 0.25.

NORMINV

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.

Syntax

NORMINV(Number; Mean; StDev)

Number represents the probability value used to determine the inverse normal distribution.

Mean represents the mean value in the normal distribution.

StDev represents the standard deviation of the normal distribution.

Example

=NORMINV(0.9;63;5) returns 69.41. If the average egg weighs 63 grams with a standard deviation of 5, then there will be 90% probability that the egg will not be heavier than 69.41g grams.

NORMDIST

Returns the density function or the normal cumulative distribution.

Syntax

NORMDIST(Number; Mean; StDev; C)

Number is the value of the distribution based on which the normal distribution is to be calculated.

Mean is the mean value of the distribution.

StDev is the standard deviation of the distribution.

C = 0 calculates the density function; C = 1 calculates the distribution.

Example

=NORMDIST(70;63;5;0) returns 0.03.

=NORMDIST(70;63;5;1) returns 0.92.

PEARSON

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient r.

Syntax

PEARSON(Data1; Data2)

Data1 represents the array of the first data set.

Data2 represents the array of the second data set.

Example

=PEARSON(A1:A30;B1:B30) returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of both data sets.

PHI

Returns the values of the distribution function for a standard normal distribution.

Syntax

PHI(Number)

Number represents the value based on which the standard normal distribution is calculated.

Example

=PHI(2.25) = 0.03

=PHI(-2.25) = 0.03

=PHI(0) = 0.4

POISSON

Returns the Poisson distribution.

Syntax

POISSON(Number; Mean; C)

Number represents the value based on which the Poisson distribution is calculated.

Mean represents the middle value of the Poisson distribution.

C = 0 calculates the density function; C = 1 calculates the distribution.

Example

=POISSON(60;50;1) returns 0.93.

PERCENTILE

Returns the alpha-percentile of data values in an array. A percentile returns the scale value for a data series which goes from the smallest (Alpha=0) to the largest value (alpha=1) of a data series. For Alpha = 25%, the percentile means the first quartile; Alpha = 50% is the MEDIAN.

Syntax

PERCENTILE(Data; Alpha)

Data represents the array of data.

Alpha represents the percentage of the scale between 0 and 1.

Example

=PERCENTILE(A1:A50;0.1) represents the value in the data set, which equals 10% of the total data scale in A1:A50.

PERCENTRANK

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a sample.

Syntax

PERCENTRANK(Data; Value)

Data represents the array of data in the sample.

Value represents the value whose percentile rank must be determined.

Example

=PERCENTRANK(A1:A50;50) returns the percentage rank of the value 50 from the total range of all values found in A1:A50. If 50 falls outside the total range, an error message will appear.

QUARTILE

Returns the quartile of a data set.

Syntax

QUARTILE(Data; Type)

Data represents the array of data in the sample.

Type represents the type of quartile. (0 = MIN, 1 = 25%, 2 = 50% (MEDIAN), 3 = 75% and 4 = MAX.)

Example

=QUARTILE(A1:A50;2) returns the value of which 50% of the scale corresponds to the lowest to highest values in the range A1:A50.

Statistical Functions Part Five

RANK

Returns the rank of a number in a sample.

Syntax

RANK(Value; Data; Type)

Value is the value, whose rank is to be determined.

Data is the array or range of data in the sample.

Type (optional) is the sequence order.

Type = 0 means descending from the last item of the array to the first (this is the default),

Type = 1 means ascending from the first item of the range to the last.

Example

=RANK(A10;A1:A50) returns the ranking of the value in A10 in value range A1:A50. If Value does not exist within the range an error message is displayed.

SKEW

Returns the skewness of a distribution.

Syntax

SKEW(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2...Number30 are numerical values or ranges.

Example

=SKEW(A1:A50) calculates the value of skew for the data referenced.

FORECAST

Extrapolates future values based on existing x and y values.

Syntax

FORECAST(Value; DataY; DataX)

Value is the x value, for which the y value on the linear regression is to be returned.

DataY is the array or range of known y's.

DataX is the array or range of known x's.

Example

=FORECAST(50;A1:A50;B1;B50) returns the Y value expected for the X value of 50 if the X and Y values in both references are linked by a linear trend.

STDEV

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample.

Syntax

STDEV(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2, ... Number30 are numerical values or ranges representing a sample based on an entire population.

Example

=STDEV(A1:A50) returns the estimated standard deviation based on the data referenced.

STDEVA

Calculates the standard deviation of an estimation based on a sample.

Syntax

STDEVA(Value1;Value2;...Value30)

Value1, Value2, ...Value30 are values or ranges representing a sample derived from an entire population. Text has the value 0.

Example

=STDEVA(A1:A50) returns the estimated standard deviation based on the data referenced.

STDEVP

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population.

Syntax

STDEVP(Number1;Number2;...Number30)

Number 1,Number 2,...Number 30 are numerical values or ranges representing a sample based on an entire population.

Example

=STDEVP(A1:A50) returns a standard deviation of the data referenced.

STDEVPA

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population.

Syntax

STDEVPA(Value1;Value2;...Value30)

Value1,value2,...value30 are values or ranges representing a sample derived from an entire population. Text has the value 0.

Example

=STDEVPA(A1:A50) returns the standard deviation of the data referenced.

STANDARDIZE

Converts a random variable to a normalized value.

Syntax

STANDARDIZE(Number; Mean; StDev)

Number is the value to be standardized.

Mean is the arithmetic mean of the distribution.

StDev is the standard deviation of the distribution.

Example

=STANDARDIZE(11;10;1) returns 1. The value 11 in a normal distribution with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 1 is as much above the mean of 10, as the value 1 is above the mean of the standard normal distribution.

NORMSINV

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.

Syntax

NORMINV(Number)

Number is the probability to which the inverse standard normal distribution is calculated.

Example

=NORMSINV(0.908789) returns 1.3333.

NORMSDIST

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function. The distribution has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

It is GAUSS(x)=NORMSDIST(x)-0.5

Syntax

NORMSDIST(Number)

Number is the value to which the standard normal cumulative distribution is calculated.

Example

=NORMSDIST(1) returns 0.84. The area below the standard normal distribution curve to the left of X value 1 is 84% of the total area.

SLOPE

Returns the slope of the linear regression line. The slope is adapted to the data points set in the y and x values.

Syntax

SLOPE(DataY; DataX)

DataY is the array or matrix of Y data.

DataX is the array or matrix of X data.

Example

=SLOPE(A1:A50;B1:B50)

STEYX

Returns the standard error of the predicted y value for each x in the regression.

Syntax

STEYX(DataY; DataX)

DataY is the array or matrix of Y data.

DataX is the array or matrix of X data.

Example

=STEXY(A1:A50;B1:B50)

DEVSQ

Returns the sum of squares of deviations based on a sample mean.

Syntax

DEVSQ(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2, ...Number30 numerical values or ranges representing a sample.

Example

=DEVSQ(A1:A50)

TINV

Returns the inverse of the t-distribution.

Syntax

TINV(Number; DegreesFreedom)

Number is the probability associated with the two-tailed t-distribution.

DegreesFreedom is the number of degrees of freedom for the t-distribution.

Example

=TINV(0.1;6) returns 1.94

TTEST

Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test.

Syntax

TTEST(Data1; Data2; Mode; Type)

Data1 is the dependent array or range of data for the first record.

Data2 is the dependent array or range of data for the second record.

Mode = 1 calculates the one-tailed test, Mode = 2 the two- tailed test.

Type is the kind of t-test to perform. Type 1 means paired. Type 2 means two samples, equal variance (homoscedastic). Type 3 means two samples, unequal variance (heteroscedastic).

Example

=TTEST(A1:A50;B1:B50;2;2)

TDIST

Returns the t-distribution.

Syntax

TDIST(Number; DegreesFreedom; Mode)

Number is the value for which the t-distribution is calculated.

DegreesFreedom is the number of degrees of freedom for the t-distribution.

Mode = 1 returns the one-tailed test, Mode = 2 returns the two-tailed test.

Example

=TDIST(12;5;1)

VAR

Estimates the variance based on a sample.

Syntax

VAR(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2, ...Number30 are numerical values or ranges representing a sample based on an entire population.

Example

=VAR(A1:A50)

VARA

Estimates a variance based on a sample. The value of text is 0.

Syntax

VARA(Value1; Value2; ...Value30)

Value1, Value2,...Value30 are values or ranges representing a sample derived from an entire population. Text has the value 0.

Example

=VARA(A1:A50)

VARP

Calculates a variance based on the entire population.

Syntax

VARP(Number1; Number2; ...Number30)

Number1, Number2, ...Number30 are numerical values or ranges representing an entire population.

Example

=VARP(A1:A50)

VARPA

Calculates the variance based on the entire population. The value of text is 0.

Syntax

VARPA(Value1; Value2; ...Value30)

Value1,value2,...Value30 are values or ranges representing an entire population.

Example

=VARPA(A1:A50)

PERMUT

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects.

Syntax

PERMUT(Count1; Count2)

Count1 is the total number of objects.

Count2 is the number of objects in each permutation.

Example

=PERMUT(6;3) returns 120. There are 120 different possibilities, to pick a sequence of 3 playing cards out of 6 playing cards.

PERMUTATIONA

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (repetition allowed).

Syntax

PERMUTATIONA(Count1; Count2)

Count1 is the total number of objects.

Count2 is the number of objects in each permutation.

Example

How often can 2 objects be selected from a total of 11 objects?

=PERMUTATIONA(11;2) returns 121.

=PERMUTATIONA(6;3) returns 216. There are 216 different possibilities to put a sequence of 3 playing cards together out of six playing cards if every card is returned before the next one is drawn.

PROB

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. If there is no End value, this function calculates the probability based on the principle that the Data values are equal to the value of Start.

Syntax

PROB(Data; Probability; Start; End)

Data is the array or range of data in the sample.

Probability is the array or range of the corresponding probabilities.

Start is the start value of the interval whose probabilities are to be summed.

End (optional) is the end value of the interval whose probabilities are to be summed. If this parameter is missing, the probability for the Start value is calculated.

Example

=PROB(A1:A50;B1:B50;50;60) returns the probability with which a value within the range of A1:A50 is also within the limits between 50 and 60. Every value within the range of A1:A50 has a probability within the range of B1:B50.

WEIBULL

Returns the values of the Weibull distribution.

Syntax

WEIBULL(Number; Alpha; Beta; C)

Number is the value at which to calculate the Weibull distribution.

Alpha is the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution.

Beta is the scale parameter of the Weibull distribution.

C indicates the type of function. If C equals 0 the form of the function is calculated, if C equals 1 the distribution is calculated.

Example

=WEIBULL(2;1;1;1) returns 0.86.

Spreadsheet Functions

This section contains descriptions of the Spreadsheet functions together with an example. The functions described below are: ADDRESS , AREAS, CHOOSE, COLUMN, COLUMNS, DDE , HLOOKUP, INDEX , INDEX2 , INDIRECT, SHEET , SHEETS, LOOKUP , MATCH , OFFSET, ROW, ROWS, STYLE, VLOOKUP, ERRORTYPE. See the following descriptions.

ADDRESS

Returns a cell address (reference) as text, according to the specified row and column numbers. Optionally, you can determine whether the address is interpreted as an absolute address (for example, $A$1) or as a relative address (as A1) or in a mixed form (A$1 or $A1). You can also specify the name of the sheet.

For interoperability the ADDRESS and INDIRECT functions support an optional parameter to specify whether the R1C1 address notation instead of the usual A1 notation should be used.

In ADDRESS, the parameter is inserted as the fourth parameter, shifting the optional sheet name parameter to the fifth position.

In INDIRECT, the parameter is appended as the second parameter.

In both functions, if the argument is inserted with the value 0, then the R1C1 notation is used. If the argument is not given or has a value other than 0, then the A1 notation is used.

In case of R1C1 notation, ADDRESS returns address strings using the exclamation mark '!' as the sheet name separator, and INDIRECT expects the exclamation mark as sheet name separator. Both functions still use the dot '.' sheet name separator with A1 notation.

Syntax

ADDRESS (row; column; abs; A1; sheet)

The row parameter represents the row number for the cell reference

The column parameter represents the column number for the cell reference (the number, not the letter)

The abs parameter determines the type of reference:
  • 1 or empty: absolute ($A$1)
  • 2: row reference type is absolute; column reference is relative (A$1)
  • 3: row (relative); column (absolute) ($A1)
  • 4: relative (A1)

The A1 parameter is optional. If this parameter is set to 0, the R1C1 notation is used. If it is absent or set to another value than 0, the A1 notation is used.

The sheet parameter represents the name of the sheet. It must be placed in double quotes.

Example:

ADDRESS(1; 1; 2; "Sheet2") returns the following: Sheet2.A$1

If the cell A1 in sheet 2 contains the value -6, you can refer indirectly to the referenced cell using a function in B2 by entering =ABS(INDIRECT(B2)). The result is the absolute value of the cell reference specified in B2, which in this case is 6.

See also the following functions:

COLUMN , ROW.

AREAS

Returns the number of individual ranges that belong to a multiple range. A range can consist of contiguous cells or a single cell.

Syntax

AREAS(Reference)

Reference represents the reference to a cell or cell range.

Example

=AREAS(A1:B3~F2~G1) returns 3, as it is a reference to three cells and/or areas.

See also the following functions:

ADDRESS , COLUMN , COLUMNS , INDEX , ROW , ROWS.

DDE

Returns the result of a DDE-based link. If the contents of the linked range or section changes, the returned value will also change. You must reload the spreadsheet or choose Edit - Links to see the updated links. Cross-platform links, for example from a IBM Lotus Symphony installation running on a Windows machine to a document created on a Linux machine, are not allowed.

Syntax

DDE(server;file;range;mode)

Server is the name of a server application. Lotus Symphony applications have the server name "soffice".

File is the complete file name, including path specification.

Range is the area containing the data to be evaluated.

Mode is an optional parameter that controls the method by which the DDE server converts its data into numbers.

Mode Effect
0 or missing Number format from the "Default" cell style
1 Data are always interpreted in the standard format for US English
2 Data are retrieved as text; no conversion to numbers

Example

=DDE("soffice";"c:\Lotus Symphony\document\data1.sxc";"sheet1.A1") reads the contents of cell A1 in sheet1 of the IBM Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets data1.sxc.

=DDE("soffice";"c:\Lotus Symphony\document\motto.sxw";"Today's motto") returns a motto in the cell containing this formula. First, you must enter a line in the motto.sxw document containing the motto text and define it as the first line of a section named Today's Motto (in IBM Lotus Symphony Documents under Create - Section ). If the motto is modified (and saved) in the Lotus Symphony Documents , the motto is updated in all Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets cells in which this DDE link is defined.

ERRORTYPE

Returns the number corresponding to an error value occurring in a different cell. With the aid of this number, you can generate an error message text.

If an error occurs, the function returns a logical or numerical value.

This icon marks text containing additional information. The Status Bar displays the predefined error code from Lotus Symphony if you click the cell containing the error.

Syntax

ERRORTYPE(Reference)

Reference contains the address of the cell in which the error occurs.

Example

If cell A1 displays Err:518, the function =ERRORTYPE(A1) returns the number 518.

INDEX

INDEX returns the content of a cell, specified by row and column number or an optional range name.

Syntax

INDEX(reference;row;column;range)

reference is a cell reference, entered either directly or by specifying a range name. If the reference consists of multiple ranges, you must enclose the reference or range name in parentheses.

row (optional) represents the row number of the reference range, for which to return a value.

column (optional) represents the column number of the reference range, for which to return a value.

range (optional) represents the index of the subrange if referring to a multiple range.

Example

=INDEX(Prices;4;1) returns the value from row 4 and column 1 of the range defined in Data - Define as Prices .

=INDEX(SumX;4;1) returns the value from the range SumX in row 4 and column 1 as defined in Create - Names - Define .

=INDEX((multi);4;1) indicates the value contained in row 4 and column 1 of the (multiple) range, which you named under Create - Names - Set as multi . The multiple range may consist of several rectangular ranges, each with a row 4 and column 1. If you now want to call the second block of this multiple range enter the number 2 as the range parameter.

=INDEX(A1:B6;1;1) indicates the value in the upper-left of the A1:B6 range.

See also the following functions:

VLOOKUP, MATCH, LOOKUP , CHOOSE, HLOOKUP.

INDEX2

Returns the contents of a cell located at the intersection of a specified row, column, and (optionally) sheet of a range.

Syntax

Index2( Range; Row; Column; Sheet)

Range(required): the reference to a range. Range could be a range address or range name.

Row(required): the offset number of the row, or the address or name of a cell that contains a positive integer.

Column(required): the offset number of the column, or the address or name of a cell which contains a positive integer.

Sheet(optional): an optional argument that is the offset number of the sheet. If the sheet is not specified, the first sheet in the range will be used.

XINDEX

Returns the contents of a cell located at the intersection specified by column-heading, row-heading, and (optionally) worksheet-heading.

Syntax

Xindex(Range; Column-heading; Row-heading; Worksheet-heading)

Range(required): the reference to a range.

Column-heading(optional): the contents of a cell in the first row of the range.

Row-heading(optional): the contents of a cell in the first column of the range.

Worksheet-heading(optional): the contents of the first cell in the range.

INDIRECT

Returns the reference specified by a text string. This function can also be used to return the area of a corresponding string.

Syntax

INDIRECT(ref)

range(required): the reference to a range.

Example

=INDIRECT(A1) equals 100 if A1 contains C108 as a reference and cell C108 contains a value of 100.

=SUM(INDIRECT("a1:" & ADDRESS(1;3))) totals the cells in the area of A1 up to the cell, whose address is defined by row 1 and column 3. Therefore, area A1:C1 is totaled.

See also the following functions:

OFFSET.

COLUMN

Returns the column number of a cell reference. If the reference is a cell the column number of the cell is returned; if the parameter is a cell area, the corresponding column numbers are returned in a single-row array if the formula is entered as an array formula . If the COLUMN function with an area reference parameter is not used for an array formula, only the column number of the first cell within the area is determined.

Syntax

COLUMN(reference)

Reference is the reference to a cell or cell area whose first column number is to be found.

If no reference is entered, the column number of the cell in which the formula is entered is found. Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets automatically sets the reference to the current cell.

Example

=COLUMN(A1) equals 1. Column A is the first column in the table.

=COLUMN(C3:E3) equals 3. Column C is the third column in the table.

=COLUMN(D3:G10) returns 4 because column D is the fourth column in the table and the COLUMN function is not used as an array formula. (In this case, the first value of the array is always used as the result.)

{=COLUMN(B2:B7)} and =COLUMN(B2:B7) both return 2 because the reference only contains column B as the second column in the table. Because single-column areas have only one column number, it does not make a difference whether or not the formula is used as an array formula.

=COLUMN() returns 3 if the formula was entered in column C.

{=COLUMN(Rabbit)} returns the single-row array (3, 4) if "Rabbit" is the named area (C1:D3).

See also the following functions:

COLUMNS, ROWS .

COLUMNS

Returns the number of columns in the given reference.

Syntax

COLUMNS(array)

array is the reference to a cell range whose total number of columns is to be found. The argument can also be a single cell.

Example

=Columns(B5) returns 1 because a cell only contains one column.

=COLUMNS(A1:C5) equals 3. The reference comprises three columns.

=COLUMNS(Rabbit) returns 2 if "Rabbit" is the named range (C1:D3).

See also the following functions:

COLUMNS, ROWS .

VLOOKUP

Vertical search with reference to adjacent cells to the right. This function checks if a specific value is contained in the first column of an array. The function then returns the value to the same line of a specific array column named by index.

The search supports

regular expressions

. As soon as you have entered text, you can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters.

Syntax

=VLOOKUP(Search criterion;array;index;sort order)

Search criterion is the value searched for in the first column of the array.

array is the reference, which is to comprise at least two columns.

index is the number of the column in the array that contains the value to be returned. The first column has the number 1.

Sort order is an optional parameter that indicates whether the first column in the array is sorted in ascending order. Enter the Boolean value FALSE if the first column is not sorted in ascending order. Sorted columns can be searched much faster and the function always returns a value, even if the search value was not matched exactly, if it is between the lowest and highest value of the sorted list. In unsorted lists, the search value must be matched exactly. Otherwise the function will return this message: Error: Value Not Available .

Example

You want to enter the number of a dish on the menu in cell A1, and the name of the dish is to appear as text in the neighboring cell (B1) immediately. The Number to Name assignment is contained in the D1:E100 array. D1 contains 100, E1 contains the name Vegetable Soup , and so forth, for 100 menu items. The numbers in column D are sorted in ascending order; thus, the optional Sort order parameter is not necessary.

Enter the following formula in B1:

=VLOOKUP(A1; D1:E100; 2)

As soon as you enter a number in A1 B1 will show the corresponding text contained in the second column of reference D1:E100. Entering a nonexistent number displays the text with the next number down. To prevent this, enter FALSE as the last parameter in the formula so that an error message is generated when a nonexistent number is entered.

See also the following functions:

INDEX, HLOOKUP , LOOKUP , MATCH.

SHEET

Returns the sheet number of a reference or a string representing a sheet name. If you do not enter any parameters, the result is the sheet number of the spreadsheet containing the formula.

Syntax

SHEET(Reference)

Reference is optional and is the reference to a cell, an area, or a sheet name string.

Example

=SHEET(Sheet2.A1) returns 2 if Sheet2 is the second sheet in the spreadsheet document.

SHEETS

Determines the number of sheets in a reference. If you do not enter any parameters, it returns the number of sheets in the current document.

Syntax

SHEETS(Reference)

Reference is the reference to a sheet or an area. This parameter is optional.

Example

=SHEETS(Sheet1.A1:Sheet3.G12) returns 3 if Sheet1, Sheet2, and Sheet3 exist in the sequence indicated.

MATCH

Returns the relative position of an item in an array that matches a specified value. The function returns the position of the value found in the lookup_array as a number.

Syntax

MATCH(search criterion;lookup_array;type)

Search Criterion is the value which is to be searched for in the single-row or single-column array.

lookup_array is the reference searched. A lookup array can be a single row or column, or part of a single row or column.

Type may take the values 1, 0, or -1. If Type = 1 or if this optional parameter is missing, it is assumed that the first column of the search array is sorted in ascending order. If Type = -1 it is assumed that the column in sorted in descending order. This corresponds to the same function in Microsoft Excel.

If Type = 0, only exact matches are found. If the search criterion is found more than once, the function returns the first one found. Only if Type = 0 can you search for regular expressions.

The search supports

regular expressions

. As soon as you have entered text, you can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters.

If Type = 1 or the third parameter is missing, the last value that is smaller or equal to the search criterion is returned. This applies even when the search array is not sorted. For Type = -1, the first value that is larger or equal is returned.

Example

=MATCH(200; D1:D100) searches the area D1:D100, which is sorted by column D, for the value 200. As soon as this value is reached, the number of the row in which it was found is returned. If a higher value is found during the search in the column, the number of the previous row is returned.

See also the following functions:

INDEX, HLOOKUP , LOOKUP

OFFSET

Returns the value of a cell offset by a certain number of rows and columns from a given reference point.

Syntax

OFFSET(reference;rows;columns;height;width)

Reference is the cell from which the function searches for the new reference.

Rows is the number of cells by which the reference was corrected up (negative value) or down.

Columns is the number of columns by which the reference was corrected to the left (negative value) or to the right.

Height is the optional vertical height for an area that starts at the new reference position.

Width is the optional horizontal width for an area that starts at the new reference position.

Example

=OFFSET(A1; 2, 2) returns the value in cell C3 (A1 moved by two rows and two columns down). If C3 contains the value 100 this function returns the value 100.

=SUM(OFFSET(A1; 2; 2; 5; 6)) determines the total of the area that starts in cell C3 and has a height of 5 rows and a width of 6 columns (area=C3:H7).

LOOKUP

Returns the contents of a cell either from a one-row or one-column range or from an array. Optionally, the assigned value (of the same index) is returned in a different column and row. As opposed to VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP , search and result vector may be at different positions; they do not have to be adjacent. Additionally, the search vector for the LOOKUP must be sorted, otherwise the search will not return any usable results.

The search supports

regular expressions

. As soon as you have entered text, you can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters.

Syntax

LOOKUP(Search criterion;Search vector;result_vector)

Search criterion is the value to be searched for; entered either directly or as a reference.

Search vector is the single-row or single-column area to be searched.

result_vector is another single-row or single-column range from which the result of the function is taken. The result is the cell of the result vector with the same index as the instance found in the search vector.

Example

=LOOKUP(A1; D1:D100;F1:F100) searches the corresponding cell in range D1:D100 for the number you entered in A1. For the instance found, the index is determined, for example, the 12th cell in this range. Then, the contents of the 12th cell are returned as the value of the function (in the result vector).

See also the following functions:

HLOOKUP, INDEX, VLOOKUP.

STYLE

Applies a style to the cell containing the formula. After a set amount of time, another style can be applied. This function always returns the value 0, allowing you to add it to another function without changing the value. Together with the CURRENT function you can apply a color to a cell regardless of the value. For example: =...+STYLE(IF(CURRENT()>3;"red";"green")) applies the style "red" to the cell if the value is greater than 3, otherwise the style "green" is applied. Both cell formats have to be defined beforehand.

Syntax

STYLE(style;time;style2)

Style is the name of a cell style assigned to the cell. Style names must be entered in quotation marks.

Time is an optional time range in seconds. If this parameter is missing the style will not be changed after a certain amount of time has passed.

Style2 is the optional name of a cell style assigned to the cell after a certain amount of time has passed. If this parameter is missing "Standard" is assumed.

Example

=STYLE("Invisible";60;"Default") formats the cell in transparent format for 60 seconds after the document was recalculated or loaded, then the Default format is assigned. Both cell formats have to be defined beforehand.

CHOOSE

Uses an index to return a value from a list of up to 30 values.

Syntax

CHOOSE(Index; value1;...value30)

Index is a reference or number between 1 and 30 indicating which value is to be taken from the list.

Value1...Value30 is the list of values entered as a reference to a cell or as individual values.

Example

=CHOOSE(A1; B1; B2; B3; "Today"; "Yesterday"; "Tomorrow"), for example, returns the contents of cell B2 for A1 = 2; for A1 = 4, the function returns the text "Today".

See also the following functions:

INDEX

HLOOKUP

Searches for a value and reference to the cells below the selected area. This function verifies if the first row of an array contains a certain value. The function returns then the value in a row of the array, named in the Index , in the same column.

The search supports

regular expressions

. As soon as you have entered text, you can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters.

Syntax

=HLOOKUP(search_criteria;array;Index;sorted)

See also: VLOOKUP (columns and rows are exchanged)

See also the following functions:

INDEX , LOOKUP , MATCH, VLOOKUP.

ROW

Returns the row number of a cell reference. If the reference is a cell, it returns the row number of the cell. If the reference is a cell range, it returns the corresponding row numbers in a one-column Array if the formula is entered as an array formula . If the ROW function with a range reference is not used in an array formula, only the row number of the first range cell will be returned.

Syntax

ROW(reference)

Reference is a cell, an area, or the name of an area.

If you do not indicate a reference, the row number of the cell in which the formula is entered will be found. Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets automatically sets the reference to the current cell.

Example

=ROW(B3) returns 3 because the reference refers to the third row in the table.

{=ROW(D5:D8)} returns the single-column array (5, 6, 7, 8) because the reference specified contains rows 5 through 8.

=ROW(D5:D8) returns 5 because the ROW function is not used as array formula and only the number of the first row of the reference is returned.

{=ROW(A1:E1)} and =ROW(A1:E1) both return 1 because the reference only contains row 1 as the first column in the table. (Because single-row areas only have one row number it does not make any difference whether or not the formula is used as an array formula.)

=ROW() returns 3 if the formula was entered in row 3.

{=ROW(Rabbit)} returns the single-column array (1, 2, 3) if "Rabbit" is the named area (C1:D3).

See also the following functions:

COLUMN , ROWS.

ROWS

Returns the number of rows in a reference or array.

Syntax

ROWS(array)

array is the reference or named area whose total number of rows is to be determined.

Example

=Rows(B5) returns 1 because a cell only contains one row.

=ROWS(A10:B12) returns 3.

=ROWS(Rabbit) returns 2 if "Rabbit" is the named area (C1:D3).

See also the following functions:

COLUMNS , ROW.

Text Functions

This section contains descriptions of the Text functions, together with an example. The functions described below are: ARABIC , BASE , CHAR , CLEAN , CODE , CONCATENATE , DECIMAL , DOLLAR , FIND , FIXED , LEFT , LEN , LOWER , MID , PROPER , REPLACE , REPT , RIGHT , ROMAN , SEARCH , SUBSTITUTE , T , TEXT , TRIM , UPPER , VALUE .

ARABIC

Calculates the value of a Roman number. The value range must be between 0 and 3999.

Syntax

ARABIC (Text)

Text is the text that represents a Roman number.

Example

Arabic("MXIV") returns 1014

Arabic("MMII") returns 2002

See also the following functions:

ROMAN .

BASE

Converts a positive integer to a specified base into a text from the numbering system . The digits 0-9 and the letters A-Z are used.

Syntax

BASE(Number; Radix; [Minimum length])

number is the positive integer to be converted.

radix indicates the base of the number system. It may be any positive integer between 2 and 36.

Minimum length (optional) determines the minimum length of the character sequence that has been created. If the text is shorter than the indicated minimum length, zeros are added to the left of the string.

Example

BASE(17;10;4) returns 0017 in the decimal system.

BASE(17;2) returns 10001 in the binary system.

BASE(255;16;4) returns 00FF in the hexadecimal system.

See also the following functions:

DECIMAL .

CHAR

Converts a number into a character according to the current code table. The number can be a two-digit or three-digit integer number.

Syntax

CHAR(number)

number is a number between 1 and 255 representing the code value for the character.

Example

CHARACTER(100) returns the character "d".

See also the following functions:

CODE

CLEAN

All non-printing characters are removed from the string.

Syntax

CLEAN(text)

text refers to the text from which to remove all non-printable characters.

See also the following functions:

CHAR , TRIM .

CODE

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string.

Syntax

CODE(Text)

Text is the text for which the code of the first character is to be found.

Example

CODE("Hieronymus") returns 72, CODE("hieroglyphic") returns 104.

This icon marks text containing additional information. The code used here does not refer to ASCII, but to the code table currently loaded.

See also the following functions:

CHAR

CONCATENATE

Combines several text strings into one string.

Syntax

CONCATENATE(Text 1;...;Text 30)

Text 1; text 2; ... represent up to 30 text passages which are to be combined into one string.

Example

CONCATENATE("Good ";"Morning ";"Mrs. ";"Doe") returns Good Morning Mrs. Doe .

DECIMAL

Converts text with characters from a number system to a positive integer in the base radix given. The radix must be in the range 2 to 36. Spaces and tabs are ignored. The text field is not case-sensitive.

If the radix is 16, a leading x or X or 0x or 0X, and an appended h or H, is disregarded. If the radix is 2, an appended b or B is disregarded. Other characters that do not belong to the number system generate an error.

Syntax

DECIMAL(Text; Radix)

text is the text to be converted. To differentiate between a hexadecimal number, such as A1 and the reference to cell A1, you must to place the number in quotation marks, for example, "A1" or "AFFE".

radix indicates the base of the number system. It may be any positive integer between 2 and 36.

Example

DECIMAL("17";10) returns 17.

DECIMAL("FACE";16) returns 64206.

DECIMAL("0101";2) returns 5.

See also the following functions:

BASE .

DOLLAR

Converts a number to an amount in the currency format, rounded to a specified decimal place. In the value field enter the number to be converted to currency. Optionally, you may enter the number of decimal places in the decimals field. If no value is specified, all numbers in currency format will be displayed with two decimal places.

You set the currency format in your system settings.

Syntax

DOLLAR(value; decimals)

value is a number, a reference to a cell containing a number, or a formula which returns a number.

decimals is the number of decimal places.

Example

DOLLAR(255) returns $255.00.

DOLLAR(367.456;2) returns $367.46. Use the decimal separator that corresponds to the current locale setting .

See also the following functions:

FIXED , TEXT , VALUE .

EXACT

Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are identical. This function is case-sensitive.

Syntax

EXACT(text_1;text_2)

text_1 refers to the first text to compare.

text_2 is the second text to compare.

Example

EXACT("IBM lab5";"IBM Lab5") returns FALSE.

See also the following functions:

LEN , SEARCH .

FIND

Looks for a string of text within another string. You can also define where to begin the search. The search term can be a number or any string of characters. The search is case-sensitive.

Syntax

FIND(find_text; text; position)

find_text refers to the text to be found.

text is the text where the search takes place.

position (optional) is the position in the text from which the search starts.

Example

FIND(76;998877665544) returns 6.

See also the following functions:

EXACT , LEN , MID , SEARCH .

FIXED

Specifies that a number be displayed with a fixed number of decimal places and with or without a thousands separator. This function can be used to apply a uniform format to a column of numbers.

Syntax

FIXED(Number; decimals; no thousands separators)

Number refers to the number to be formatted.

Decimals refers to the number of decimal places to be displayed.

No thousands separators (optional) determines whether the thousands separator is used. If the parameter is a number not equal to 0, the thousands separator is suppressed. If the parameter is equal to 0 or if it is missing altogether, the thousands separators of your current locale setting are displayed.

Example

FIXED(1234567.89;3) returns 1,234,567.890. FIXED(1234567.89;3;1) returns 1234567.890.

See also the following functions:

DOLLAR , ROUND , TEXT , VALUE .

LEN

Returns the length of a string including spaces.

Syntax

LEN(text)

text is the text whose length is to be determined.

Example

LEN("Good Afternoon") returns 14 .

LEN(12345.67) returns 8 .

See also the following functions:

EXACT , SEARCH .

LOWER

Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

Syntax

LOWER(text)

text refers to the text to be converted.

Example

LOWER("IBM") returns ibm.

See also the following functions:

PROPER , UPPER .

MID

Returns a text segment of a character string. The parameters specify the starting position and the number of characters.

Syntax

MID(text; start; number)

text is the text containing the characters to extract.

start is the position of the first character in the text to extract.

number specifies the number of characters in the part of the text.

Example

MID("IBM TB 2004";5;2) returns TB .

See also the following functions:

CODE , FIND , LEFT , RIGHT , SEARCH .

PROPER

Capitalizes the first letter in all words of a text string.

Syntax

PROPER(text)

text refers to the text to be converted.

Example

PROPER("ibm software lab") returns Ibm Software Lab.

See also the following functions:

UPPER , LOWER .

REPLACE

Replaces part of a text string with a different text string. This function can be used to replace both characters and numbers (which are automatically converted to text). The result of the function is always displayed as text. If you intend to perform further calculations with a number which has been replaced by text, you will need to convert it back to a number using the VALUE function.

Any text containing numbers must be enclosed in quotation marks if you do not want it to be interpreted as a number and automatically converted to text.

Syntax

REPLACE(text; position; length; new text)

text refers to text of which a part will be replaced.

position refers to the position within the text where the replacement will begin.

length is the number of characters in text to be replaced.

new text refers to the text which replaces text .

Example

REPLACE("1234567";1;1;"444") returns "444234567". One character at position 1 is replaced by the complete new text .

See also the following functions:

MID , SEARCH , SUBSTITUTE , TRIM .

REPT

Repeats a character string by the given number of copies.

Syntax

REPT(text; number)

text is the text to be repeated.

number is the number of repetitions.

The result can be a maximum of 255 characters.

Example

REPT("Good morning"; 2) returns Good morningGood morning .

RIGHT

Defines the last character or characters in a text string.

Syntax

RIGHT(text; number)

text is the text of which the right part is to be determined.

number (optional) is the number of characters from the right part of the text.

Example

RIGHT("Hui";2) returns ui .

See also the following functions:

LEFT , MID .

ROMAN

Converts a number into a Roman numeral. The value range must be between 0 and 3999, the modes can be integers from 0 to 4.

Syntax

ROMAN(Number; Mode)

Number is the number that is to be converted into a Roman numeral.

Mode (optional) indicates the degree of simplification. The higher the value, the greater is the simplification of the Roman number.

Example

ROMAN(999) returns CMXCIX

ROMAN(999;0) returns CMXCIX

ROMAN (999;1) returns LMVLIV

ROMAN(999;2) returns XMIX

ROMAN(999;3) returns VMIV

ROMAN(999;4) returns IM

See also the following functions:

ARABIC

SEARCH

Returns the position of a text segment within a character string. You can set the start of the search as an option. The search text can be a number or any sequence of characters. The search is not case-sensitive.

The search supports

regular expressions

. As soon as you have entered text, you can enter "all.*", for example to find the first location of "all" followed by any characters.

Syntax

SEARCH(find_text; text; position)

find_text is the text to be searched for.

text is the text where the search will take place.

position (optional) is the position in the text where the search is to start.

Example

SEARCH(54;998877665544) returns 10.

See also the following functions:

FIND , MID , REPLACE , SUBSTITUTE .

SUBSTITUTE

Substitutes new text for old text in a string.

Syntax

SUBSTITUTE(text; search_text; new text; occurrence)

text is the text in which text segments are to be exchanged.

search_text is the text segment that is to be replaced (a number of times).

new text is the text that is to replace the text segment.

occurrence (optional) indicates how many occurrences of the search text are to be replaced. If this parameter is missing the search text is replaced throughout.

Example

SUBSTITUTE("123123123"; "3"; "abc") returns 12abc12abc12abc .

SUBSTITUTE("123123123"; "3"; "abc"; 2) returns 12312abc123 .

See also the following functions:

REPLACE , TRIM .

T

This function converts a number to a blank text string.

Syntax

T(value)

value is the value to be converted. Also, a reference can be used as a parameter. If the referenced cell includes a number or a formula containing a numerical result, the result will be an empty string.

Example

T(12345) becomes an empty string "", if 12345 is formatted as a number. T("12345") returns 12345.

See also the following functions:

N , VALUE .

TEXT

Converts a number into text according to a given format.

Syntax

TEXT(Number; Format)

Number is the numerical value to be converted.

Format is the text which defines the format. Use decimal and thousands separators according to the language set in the cell format.

See also the following functions:

DOLLAR , FIXED , T , VALUE .

TRIM

Removes spaces that are in front of a string, or aligns cell contents to the left.

Syntax

TRIM(Text)

text refers to text in which leading spaces are removed, or to the cell in which the contents will be left-aligned.

Example

TRIM(" hello") returns "hello".

See also the following functions:

CLEAN , REPLACE , MID , SUBSTITUTE .

UPPER

Converts the string specified in the text field to uppercase.

Syntax

UPPER(text)

text refers to the lower case letters you want to convert to upper case.

Example

UPPER("Good Morning") returns GOOD MORNING.

See also the following functions:

LOWER , PROPER .

VALUE

Converts a text string into a number.

Syntax

VALUE(text)

text is the text to be converted to a number.

Example

VALUE("4321") returns 4321.

See also the following functions:

DOLLAR , FIXED , TEXT .

Add-in Functions

The following describes and lists some of the available add-in functions.

Add-in concept

You will also find a description of the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets add-in interface in the Help. In addition, important functions and their parameters are described in the Help for the Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets add-in DLL.

Add-ins supplied

Lotus Symphony contains examples for the add-in interface of Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets.

Analysis Functions Part One

Analysis Functions Part Two

ISLEAPYEAR

Determines whether a year is a leap year. If yes, the function will return the value 1 (TRUE); if not, it will return 0 (FALSE).

Syntax

ISLEAPYEAR("Date")

Date specifies whether a given date falls within a leap year. The Date parameter must be a valid date according to the locale settings of Lotus Symphony.

Example

=ISLEAPYEAR(A1) returns 1, if A1 contains 1968-02-29, the valid date 29th of February 1968 in your locale setting.

You may also use =ISLEAPYEAR("1968-02-29") or =ISLEAPYEAR("2/29/68").

Never use =ISLEAPYEAR(2/29/68), because this would first evaluate 2 divided by 29 divided by 68, and then calculate the ISLEAPYEAR function from this small number as a serial date number.

YEARS

Calculates the difference in years between two dates.

Syntax

YEARS(StartDate; EndDate; Type)

StartDate is the first date

EndDate is the second date

Type calculates the type of difference. Possible values are 0 (interval) and 1 (in calendar years).

MONTHS

Calculates the difference in months between two dates.

Syntax

MONTHS(StartDate; EndDate; Type)

StartDate is the first date

EndDate is the second date

Type calculates the type of difference. Possible values include 0 (interval) and 1 (in calendar months).

ROT13

Encrypts a character string by moving the characters 13 positions in the alphabet. After the letter Z, the alphabet begins again (Rotation). By applying the encryption function again to the resulting code, you can decrypt the text.

Syntax

ROT13(Text)

Text is the character string to be encrypted. ROT13(ROT13(Text)) decrypts the code.

DAYSINYEAR

Calculates the number of days of the year in which the date entered occurs.

Syntax

DAYSINYEAR(Date)

Date is any date in the respective year. The Date parameter must be a valid date according to the locale settings of Lotus Symphony.

Example

=DAYSINYEAR(A1) returns 366 days if A1 contains 1968-02-29, a valid date for the year 1968.

DAYSINMONTH

Calculates the number of days of the month in which the date entered occurs.

Syntax

DAYSINMONTH(Date)

Date is any date in the respective month of the desired year. The Date parameter must be a valid date according to the locale settings of Lotus Symphony.

Example

=DAYSINMONTH(A1) returns 29 days if A1 contains 1968-02-17, a valid date for February 1968.

WEEKS

Calculates the difference in weeks between two dates.

Syntax

WEEKS(StartDate; EndDate; Type)

StartDate is the first date

EndDate is the second date

Type calculates the type of difference. The possible values are 0 (interval) and 1 (in numbers of weeks).

WEEKSINYEAR

Calculates the number of weeks of the year in which the date entered occurs. The number of weeks is defined as follows: a week that spans two years is added to the year in which most days of that week occur.

Syntax

WEEKSINYEAR(Date)

Date is any date in the respective year. The Date parameter must be a valid date according to the locale settings of Lotus Symphony.

Example

WEEKSINYEAR(A1) returns 53 if A1 contains 1970-02-17, a valid date for the year 1970.

Add-ins through Lotus Symphony API

Add-ins can also be implemented through the Lotus Symphony API.

Add-in Functions, List of Analysis Functions Part One

To access this command...

Create - Function - Category Add-In

BESSELI

Calculates the modified Bessel function.

Syntax

BESSELI(X; N)

X is the value on which the function will be calculated.

N is the order of the Bessel function

BESSELJ

Calculates the Bessel function (cylinder function).

Syntax

BESSELJ(X; N)

X is the value on which the function will be calculated.

N is the order of the Bessel function

BESSELK

Calculates the modified Bessel function.

Syntax

BESSELK(X; N)

X is the value on which the function will be calculated.

N is the order of the Bessel function

BESSELY

Calculates the modified Bessel function.

Syntax

BESSELY(X; N)

X is the value on which the function will be calculated.

N is the order of the Bessel function

BIN2DEC

The result is the decimal number for the binary number entered.

Syntax

BIN2DEC(Number)

Number is a binary number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places (bits). The most significant bit is the sign bit. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Example

=BIN2DEC(1100100) returns 100.

BIN2HEX

The result is the hexadecimal number for the binary number entered.

Syntax

BIN2HEX(Number; Places)

Number is a binary number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places (bits). The most significant bit is the sign bit. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places means the number of places to be output.

Example

=BIN2HEX(1100100;6) returns 000064.

BIN2OCT

The result is the octal number for the binary number entered.

Syntax

BIN2OCT(Number; Places)

Number is a binary number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places (bits). The most significant bit is the sign bit. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places means the number of places to be output.

Example

=BIN2OCT(1100100;4) returns 0144.

DELTA

The result is TRUE (1) if both numbers, which are delivered as an argument, are equal, otherwise it is FALSE (0).

Syntax

DELTA(Number1; Number2)

Example

=DELTA(1;2) returns 0.

DEC2BIN

The result is the binary number for the decimal number entered between -512 and 511.

Syntax

DEC2BIN(Number; Places)

Number is a decimal number. If Number is negative, the function returns a binary number with 10 characters. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the other 9 bits return the value.

Places means the number of places to be output.

Example

=DEC2BIN(100;8) returns 01100100.

DEC2HEX

The result is the hexadecimal number for the decimal number entered.

Syntax

DEC2HEX(Number; Places)

Number is a decimal number. If Number is negative, the function returns a hexadecimal number with 10 characters (40 bits). The most significant bit is the sign bit, the other 39 bits return the value.

Places means the number of places to be output.

Example

=DEC2HEX(100;4) returns 0064.

DEC2OCT

The result is the octal number for the decimal number entered.

Syntax

DEC2OCT(Number; Places)

Number is a decimal number. If Number is negative, the function returns an octal number with 10 characters (30 bits). The most significant bit is the sign bit, the other 29 bits return the value.

Places means the number of places to be output.

Example

=DEC2OCT(100;4) returns 0144.

ERF

Returns values of the Gaussian error integral.

Syntax

ERF(LowerLimit; UpperLimit)

LowerLimit is the lower limit of the integral.

UpperLimit is optional. It is the upper limit of the integral. If this value is missing, the calculation takes places between 0 and the lower limit.

Example

=ERF(0;1) returns 0.842701.

ERFC

Returns complementary values of the Gaussian error integral between x and infinity.

Syntax

ERFC(LowerLimit)

LowerLimit is the lower limit of the integral

Example

=ERFC(1) returns 0.157299.

GESTEP

The result is 1 if Number is greater than or equal to Step.

Syntax

GESTEP(Number; Step)

Example

=GESTEP(5;1) returns 1.

HEX2BIN

The result is the binary number for the hexadecimal number entered.

Syntax

HEX2BIN(Number; Places)

Number is a hexadecimal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places is the number of places to be output.

Example

=HEX2BIN(64;8) returns 01100100.

HEX2DEC

The result is the decimal number for the hexadecimal number entered.

Syntax

HEX2DEC(Number)

Number is a hexadecimal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Example

=HEX2DEC(64) returns 100.

HEX2OCT

The result is the octal number for the hexadecimal number entered.

Syntax

HEX2OCT(Number; Places)

Number is a hexadecimal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places is the number of places to be output.

Example

=HEX2OCT(64;4) returns 0144.

Add-in Functions, List of Analysis Functions Part Two

IMABS

The result is the absolute value of a complex number.

Syntax

IMABS(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMABS("5+12j") returns 13.

IMAGINARY

The result is the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.

Syntax

IMAGINARY(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMAGINARY("4+3j") returns 3.

IMPOWER

The result is the integer power of a complex number.

Syntax

IMPOWER(Complex number;Number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Number: the exponent.

Example

=IMPOWER("2+3i";2) returns -5+12i.

IMARGUMENT

The result is the argument (the phi angle) of a complex number.

Syntax

IMARGUMENT(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMARGUMENT("3+4j") returns 0.927295.

IMCOS

The result is the cosine of a complex number.

Syntax

IMCOS(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMCOS("3+4j") returns -27.03-3.85i (rounded).

IMDIV

The result is the division of two complex numbers.

Syntax

IMDIV(Numerator;Denominator)

Numerator, Denominator: the complex numbers are entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMDIV("-238+240i";"10+24i") returns 5+12i.

Syntax

IMEXP(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

IMEXP

The result is the power of e (the Eulerian number) and the complex number.

Example

=IMEXP("1+j") returns 1.47+2.29j (rounded).

IMCONJUGATE

The result is the conjugated complex complement to a complex number.

Syntax

IMCONJUGATE(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMCONJUGATE("1+j") returns 1-j.

IMLN

The result is the natural logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax

IMLN(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMLN("1+j") returns 0.35+0.79j (rounded).

IMLOG10

The result is the common logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax

IMLOG10(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMLOG10("1+j") returns 0.15+0.34j (rounded).

IMLOG2

The result is the binary logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax

IMLOG2(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMLOG2("1+j") returns 0.50+1.13j (rounded).

IMPRODUCT

The result is the product of up to 29 complex numbers.

Syntax

IMPRODUCT(Complex number;Complex number 1;...)

Complex number: the complex numbers are entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMPRODUCT("3+4j";"5-3j") returns 27+11j.

IMREAL

The result is the real coefficient of a complex number.

Syntax

IMREAL(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMREAL("1+3j") returns 1.

IMSIN

The result is the sine of a complex number.

Syntax

IMSIN(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex number is entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMSIN("3+4j") returns 3.85+27.02j (rounded).

IMSUB

The result is the subtraction of two complex numbers.

Syntax

IMSUB(Complex number 1;Complex number 2)

Complex number: the complex numbers are entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMSUB("13+4j";"5+3j") returns 8+j.

IMSUM

The result is the sum of up to 29 complex numbers.

Syntax

IMSUM(Complex number 1;Complex number 2;...)

Complex number: the complex numbers are entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMSUM("13+4j";"5+3j") returns 18+7j.

IMSQRT

The result is the square root of a complex number.

Syntax

IMSQRT(Complex number)

Complex number: the complex numbers are entered in the form "x + yi" or "x + yj"

Example

=IMSQRT("3+4i") returns 2+1i.

COMPLEX

The result is a complex number which is returned from a real coefficient and an imaginary coefficient.

Syntax

COMPLEX(Real num;I num;Suffix)

Real num: the real coefficient of the complex number.

I num: the imaginary coefficient of the complex number.

Suffix: list of options, "i" or "j".

Example

=COMPLEX(3;4;"j") returns 3+4j.

OCT2BIN

The result is the binary number for the octal number entered.

Syntax

OCT2BIN(Number;Places)

Number: the octal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places: the number of places to be output.

Example

=OCT2BIN(3;3) returns 011.

OCT2DEC

The result is the decimal number for the octal number entered.

Syntax

OCT2DEC(Number)

Number: the octal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Example

=OCT2DEC(144) returns 100.

OCT2HEX

The result is the hexadecimal number for the octal number entered.

Syntax

OCT2HEX(Number;Places)

Number: the octal number. The number can have a maximum of 10 places. The most significant bit is the sign bit, the following bits return the value. Negative numbers are entered as two's complement.

Places: the number of places to be output.

Example

=OCT2HEX(144;4) returns 0064.

CONVERT_ADD

Converts a value from one unit of measure to the corresponding value in another unit of measure. Enter the units of measures directly as text in quotation marks or as a reference. If you enter the units of measure in cells, they must correspond exactly with the following list which is case sensitive: For example, in order to enter a lower case l (for liter) in a cell, enter the apostrophe ' immediately followed by l.

Property Units
Weight g, sg, lbm, u, ozm, stone, ton, grain, pweight, hweight, shweight
Length m, mi, Nmi, in, ft, yd, ang, Pica, ell, parsec
Time yr, day, hr, mn, sec
Pressure Pa, atm, mmHg, Torr, psi
Force N, dyn, pond
Energy J, e, c, cal, eV, HPh, Wh, BTU
Power W, HP, PS
Field strength T, ga
Temperature C, F, K, Reau, Rank
Volume l, tsp, tbs, oz, cup, pt, qt, gal, m3, mi3, Nmi3, in3, ft3, yd3, ang3, Pica3, barrel, bushel, regton, Schooner, Middy, Glass
Area m2, mi2, Nmi2, in2, ft2, yd2, ang2, Pica2, Morgen, ar, acre, ha
Speed m/s, m/h, mph, kn, admkn

Each unit of measure must be preceded by a prefix character from the following list:

Permitted prefix characters  
10^(<0) d, c, m, u, n, p, f, a, z, y
10^(>0) e, h, k, M, G, T, P, E, Z, Y

Syntax

CONVERT_ADD(Number;From unit;To unit)

Number: the number to be converted.

From unit: the unit from which conversion is taking place.

To unit: the unit to which conversion is taking place.

Examples:

=CONVERT_ADD(10;"HP";"PS") returns, rounded to two decimal places, 10.14. 10 HP equal 10.14 PS.

=CONVERT_ADD(10;"km";"mi")returns, rounded to two decimal places, 6.21. 10 Kilometers equal 6.21 miles. The k is the permitted prefix character for the factor 10^3.

FACTDOUBLE

The result is the factorial of the number with increments of 2.

Syntax

FACTDOUBLE(Number)

Number: if the number is even, the following factorial is calculated: n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*4*2.

If the number is uneven, the following factorial is calculated: n*(N-2)*(n-4)*...*3*1.

Example

=FACTDOUBLE(6) returns 48.

Operators in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets

You can use the following operators in Lotus Symphony Spreadsheets:

Arithmetical Operators

These operators return numerical results.

Table 43. Arithmetical operators
Operator Name Example
+ (Plus) Addition 1+1
- (Minus) Subtraction 2-1
- (Minus) Negation -5
* (asterisk) Multiplication 2*2
/ (Slash) Division 9/3
% (Percent) Percent 15%
^ (Caret) Exponentiation 3^2

Comparative operators

These operators return either true or false.

Table 44. Comparative operators
Operator Name Example
= (equal sign) Equal A1=B1
> (Greater than) Greater than A1>B1
< (Less than) Less than A1<B1
>= (Greater than or equal to) Greater than or equal to A1>=B1
<= (Less than or equal to) Less than or equal to A1<=B1
<> (Inequality) Inequality A1<>B1

Text operators

The operator combines separate texts into one text.

Table 45. Text operators
Operator Name Example
& (And) text concatenation AND "Sun" & "day" is "Sunday"

Reference operators

These operators return a cell range of zero, one or more cells.

Range has the highest precedence, then intersection, and then finally union.

Table 46.
Operator Name Example
: (Colon) Range A1:C108
! (Exclamation point) Intersection

SUM(A1:B6!B5:C12)

Calculates the sum of all cells in the intersection; in this example, the result yields the sum of cells B5 and B6.

~ (Tilde) Concatenation or union Takes two references and returns a reference list, which is a concatenation of the left reference followed by the right reference. Double entries are referenced twice. See note below this table.
Note Icon Reference concatenation using a tilde character is a new operator. When a formula with the tilde operator exists in a document that is opened in previous versions of the software, an error is returned. A reference list is not allowed inside an array expression.